Ian W. Maynard
Beverley McKiddie and Ian W. Maynard
The primary aim of this study was to examine developmental differences in children's evaluation of their physical competence within the physical education lesson. Participants (N = 160) from two groups in secondary school (Year 7 and Year 10) completed two questionnaires that measured their levels of perceived competence and the criteria used to assess competence. The actual level of a participant’s physical competence was ascertained through teacher evaluation. Univariate and multivariate analyses of data disclosed three main findings. First, children’s accuracy in evaluating their own competence increases with age. Second, the sources of information children use to judge their ability is also age-dependent. Gender differences also emerged, indicating that overall males exhibited a greater preference for game outcome/ease of learning new skills as criteria to judge their competence. Third, the information sources children use in competency judgments was directly linked to the accuracy of these judgments.
Ian W. Maynard and Peter C.J. Cotton
The aim of this study was to investigate Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, and Smith’s (1990) contention that stress-management techniques should be matched to the symptoms manifested by performers. Subjects, 20 male collegiate field hockey players, responded to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) on four occasions prior to an important hockey match. Subjects were then placed in two intervention groups: applied relaxation (somatic anxiety; n = 6) and positive thought control (cognitive anxiety; n = 8). Six additional subjects formed the control group. Subjects completed a 12-week intervention in a field setting. Results suggested that reducing anxiety with a method directed at the performer’s dominant anxiety type is more efficacious. A secondary aim was to further investigate the anxiety-performance relationship using an intraindividual performance measure. Somatic anxiety was found to account for 22% of the variance in field hockey performance. Polynomial trend analyses failed to produce significant relationships between the CSAI-2 subscales and performance.
John Pates, Andy Cummings and Ian Maynard
This study examined the effects of hypnosis on flow states and three-point shooting performance in 5 collegiate basketball players. The investigation utilized an ideographic single-subject multiple baselines across subjects design combined with a procedure that monitors the internal experience of the participants (Wollman, 1986). The method of intervention utilized in this study involved relaxation, imagery, hypnotic induction, hypnotic regression, and trigger control procedures. The results indicated that all five participants increased both their mean basketball three-point shooting performance and their mean flow scores from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between the baseline and intervention for either performance or flow state. Additionally, each participant indicated that they had felt the intervention was useful in keeping them confident, relaxed, and calm. These results support the hypothesis that a hypnosis intervention can improve three-point shooting performance in basketball players and increase feelings and cognitions that are associated with flow.
Owen Thomas, Ian Maynard and Sheldon Hanton
Competitive anxiety and self-confidence were examined temporally in “facilitators,” “debilitators,” and “mixed interpreters” using the modified CSAI-2 (intensity, direction, frequency). MANOVA’s (group X time-to-competition) and follow-up tests revealed no significant interactions but revealed significant main effects for both factors. Facilitators displayed increased intensities of self-confidence, more positive interpretations of cognitive and somatic symptoms, increased frequency of self-confidence, and decreased frequency of cognitive symptoms than debilitators through performance preparation. Time-to-competition effects indicated intensities of cognitive and somatic responses increased, and self-confidence decreased near competition. Directional perceptions of cognitive and somatic responses became less positive, and the frequency of these symptoms increased toward the event. Findings have implications for intervention design and timing and emphasize the importance of viewing symptoms over temporal phases.
Pete Lindsay, Ian Maynard and Owen Thomas
Using a single-subject multiple baseline design, combined with assessments of participants’ internal experience (Wollman, 1986), the efficacy of a hypnotic intervention on flow state and competitive cycling performance was assessed in three elite cyclists. Intervention involved relaxation, imagery, hypnotic induction, hypnotic regression, and the conditioning of an unconscious trigger associated with the emotions of past peak performance. Ecologically valid performance measures were collected from British Cycling Federation (BCF) races, and the intensity of flow was assessed using Jackson and Marsh’s (1996) Flow State Scale (FSS). Results indicated that the number of BCF points gained per race was positively influenced in one participant, sporadically influenced in the second participant, and not influenced in the third participant. FSS scores during the intervention phase increased for one participant. These findings suggest that hypnotic interventions may improve elite competitive cycling performance and increase the feelings and cognitions associated with flow.
Liam A. Slack, Ian W. Maynard, Joanne Butt and Peter Olusoga
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Mental Toughness Education and Training Program (MTETP) in elite football officiating. The MTETP consisted of four individual and two group-based workshops designed to develop mental toughness (MT) and enhance performance in three English Football League (EFL) referees. Adopting a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, MT and referee-assessor reports were evaluated. Self and coach-ratings of MT highlighted an instant and continued improvement in all three referees during the intervention phases. Performance reports of all referees improved throughout the intervention phases compared with the baseline phase. Social validation data indicated that an array of strategies within the MTETP facilitated MT development. Discussions acknowledge theoretical and practical implications relating to the continued progression of MT interventions in elite sport.
Ian W. Maynard, Martin J. Smith and Lawrence Warwick-Evans
The aims of this field-based study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive intervention technique and to further examine the anxiety–performance relationship in semiprofessional soccer players. Participants completed a composite version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) 20 minutes before three soccer league matches. Two experimental groups, one suffering from debilitative cognitive anxiety (n = 8), one suffering from debilitative somatic anxiety (n = 8), undertook a 12-week cognitive intervention. Player performances were evaluated using intraindividual criteria. A series of two-way analyses of variance (group and event), with repeated measures on the second factor, indicated significant Group × Event interactions for cognitive anxiety intensity and direction, and somatic anxiety intensity and direction, yet failed to reveal significant interactions or main effects for the performance measures. This study provided partial support for the “matching hypothesis” in that a compatible treatment proved more effective in reducing the targeted anxiety in both experimental groups.
Ian W. Maynard, Brian Hemmings and Lawrence Warwick-Evans
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a somatic intervention technique. Subjects (N = 17) completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory 2 (CSAI-2), which assessed both intensity and direction (debilitative-facilitative) of state anxiety within one hour of a soccer league match. During the match, player performances were evaluated using intraindividual criteria. Subjects were then allocated to control (n = 8) and experimental (n = 9) groups on the basis of their somatic anxiety intensity and direction scores. Following an 8-week intervention, subjects were again assessed during a second soccer match. A series of twoway analyses of variance with one repeated measure revealed significant interactions for cognitive anxiety intensity, somatic anxiety intensity, and somatic anxiety direction. This study provided further support for the “matching hypotheses” in that a compatible treatment proved most effective in reducing the targeted anxiety.