This study explores parents’ gendered meanings in their involvement with their son’s soccer participation. We use Bourdieu’s (1985; 1990; 2012) theoretical perspective of fields, positions, habitus and taking positions to examine the way in which parents in two Dutch soccer clubs reconstruct and negotiate gendered meanings through expressions, positioning and power relations within the field of their son’s soccer. The findings suggest that, within this field, a subdivision exists between the ‘main’ field, represented by masculine meanings, and the subordinated ‘serving-the-main’ field, represented by feminine values. The study contributes to a better understanding of the processes involved in the construction of gender in both subfields and highlights the way in which women who enter the ‘main’ field can be theorized as ‘space invaders’.
Inge Claringbould and Johanna Adriaanse
Agnes Elling and Inge Claringbould
Inclusionary and exclusionary mechanisms that influence sport participation and positions of leadership in sport form a complex constellation of interacting factors and dimensions. Who can, who is allowed, and who is willing to participate in sport is influenced by institutional selection mechanisms as much as by individual options and choices. Socialization, money and time, accessibility of sporting facilities, normative and discriminating structures and cultures, and sporting abilities and talent are interacting in/exclusionary factors that influence sport participation options among people with different social-status positions (e.g., age, gender, and ethnicity). Changes in the facilitation and organization of sport can enhance a more inclusive sport practice, which might also foster social inclusion in broader society. The focus of this article is on changing and reproducing patterns of social inclusionary and exclusionary mechanisms in (post)modern sport in Western countries like the Netherlands. We present and analyze the current status and development in central theories, governmental policies, and empirical data.
Inge Claringbould and Annelies Knoppers
The gender ratio of those in positions of leadership continues to be skewed toward a male majority. The purpose of this study is to explore how practices of gender may contribute to the lack of significant change in this skewed ratio in (sport) organizations. We situate our study within Martin’s (2003, 2006) notion of practices of gender. We conducted interviews with 15 sport journalists and 32 members of boards of governance of sport organizations to investigate how the skewed gender ratio was maintained and challenged by paradoxical practices of gender. The results show that practices of gender neutrality, normalcy and passivity strengthened and maintained the current gender skewness. We also give examples of disruptive practices that contributed to the undoing of gender in these organizations.