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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

Purpose: This study examined how content knowledge (CK) varies between teachers with different levels of content expertise in teaching volleyball. In addition, it investigated changes to the content-experienced (C-Exd) teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and their students’ performances after developing CK, compared with those of the content-expert (C-Ext) teachers. Method: Two C-Exd and two C-Ext teachers and their 72 students participated in this study. A well-designed CK workshop was implemented for the two C-Exd teachers’ CK improvement. Differences in the teachers’ CK, enacted PCK, and their students’ performance measures were compared. Results: The results of this study indicated that the C-Ext teachers possessed stronger CK than the C-Exd teachers and that the C-Exd teachers improved their enacted PCK and the students’ motor performance after the CK workshop without showing statistically significant differences from those of the C-Ext teachers. Conclusion: The study presents ways to promote teacher effectiveness with supportive evidence-based practices.

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Insook Kim, Yun Soo Lee, Phillip Ward and Weidong Li

Despite increasing policy emphasis on improving teacher quality, little is known about how teachers acquire their movement content knowledge in physical education teacher education (PETE). To address this question we examined: (a) movement content courses designed to teach K-12 physical education content in the PETE curriculum, (b) the purpose of the movement content courses, (c) the focus of the movement content course syllabi, and (d) pedagogical tasks used to teach movement content knowledge. Data were collected from websites, program coordinators, and course syllabi in 26 PETE programs and analyzed using descriptive statistics or one-way chi-square test. A primary conclusion from this study is that not a lot of common content knowledge is taught in the PETE curriculums we examined. A second conclusion is that specialized content knowledge does not represent a significant focus in the movement content classes. These findings both support and challenge current policy initiatives that address teacher quality in PETE.

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Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Yun Soo Lee, Bomna Ko, Insook Kim and Wang Tao


This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.


The reliability, content, and concurrent validity of content maps and formulae were evaluated together with an application of the content maps and formulae. Descriptive statistics were used to report the data.


The reliability and validity of content maps was established. The new categories allowed for a finer analysis of content development. All formulae differentiated among different content expertise.


If depth of content knowledge is evidenced by tasks designed to refine, extend and apply student performance, then the content map, categories and formulae reported in this study provide tools that have utility for teachers, teacher educators and researchers.

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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith

Purpose: We conducted a retroactive analysis of teacher and student data from two randomized group trials and one well-controlled quasi-experimental group trial focused on improving pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and student performance. Method: Seven teachers and 32 classes were investigated. PCK was measured using four variables: task selection, representation, adaption, and an aggregate variable called total PCK. Student data are reported as percentages of correct performance. Data are reported descriptively using effect sizes (ES). Results: The studies generated 35 ES across four teachers and one student performance variable. All ES exceeded the U.S. Department of Education’s What Works Clearinghouse .25 standard deviation criterion for a “substantively important” effect and all ES exceeded Cohen’s criteria of .8 for a large effect. Discussion: Findings from this study support a focus on professional development of teachers’ content knowledge as an evidenced-based practice for improving the PCK of teachers and in turn student performance.