The purpose of this study was to investigate the home advantage in female collegiate Division I gymnastics by apparatus and determine the performance effect of the Judges’ Assignor System (JAS) introduced in 2005 on each apparatus. Participant teams (N = 15) were selected based on their ranking in the top 25 nationally at the end of each regular season from 2003 to 2007. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed home scores for each apparatus were significantly higher than their respective away scores, with the largest differences occurring in the uneven bars and floor exercise. Additionally, a repeated measures ANOVA to assess the JAS impact on scores revealed that home performances yielded higher scores than away for all apparatus, and scores for all apparatus were lower both at home and away since the introduction of JAS. Results are assessed based on current research, and application for judges and coaches is discussed.
Timothy Baghurst and Inza Fort
Timothy Baghurst, Inza Fort and René Cook
The current study investigated the performance effects of competing at home or away venues in female collegiate Division I gymnastics. Teams (N = 15) selected for analyses were ranked in the top 25 nationally at the end of each regular season during the period of 2003 to 2007 with the exclusion of 2005. Each team’s total scores at all regular season home meets over the four years were compiled and compared to their respective away meet total scores. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed home scores to be significantly higher than away scores. Additionally, with the introduction of the Judges’ Assignor System (JAS) in 2005, team scores at home and away were compared before and after its introduction. Team scores were significantly higher at home prior to and following the introduction of JAS. However, performance scores were found to be significantly reduced at both home and away with JAS. The results of this study suggest that teams perform significantly better at home than away. In addition, the findings suggest that JAS has significantly reduced gymnastics scores, yet has not significantly altered the effects of competing away from home. Findings are discussed in light of current research and application for coaches and officials is provided.
Ro Di Brezzo, Inza L. Fort and George L. Hoyt III
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training two times per week versus three times per week on strength development in older women. Subjects were 59 women between the ages of 40 and 65 years. Variables measured were body weight, percent fat, girth, flexibility, and strength one-repetition maximums (1RM). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: twice a week (2x) or three times a week (3x). Total training volume for the two groups was approximately equal and the training period lasted eight weeks. Pre-to-post results were analyzed within and between groups. Both training protocols were effective for reducing body fat and increasing strength as measured by the 1RM. The 3x group showed greater gains in increasing 1RMs in the Standing Lat Pull, Triceps Extension, and Leg Press. Most girth measurements in both groups did not significantly change, but both groups increased flexibility. In an age when time demands on women are increasing, resistive training two times a week is effective for producing strength gains.