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Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman, and Mackenzie McLaughlin

A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.

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Christian Åkermark, Ira Jacobs, Margareta Rasmusson, and Jan Karlsson

The effects of carbohydrate (CHO) loading on physical characteristics including muscle fiber distribution, muscle glycogen concentration, and physical performance were studied in two top Swedish ice hockey teams. Players were randomly allocated to two groups: those consuming a CHO-enriched diet (CHO group) and those consuming a mixed diet (controls). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken three times: after Game 1, before Game 2, and after Game 2. Muscle fiber distribution averaged 50 ± 2% slow twitch fibers (mean ± 1SEM). Muscle glycogen concentrations (measured in mmol glucose units · kg−1 wet muscle) were as follows: after Game 1, 43 ± 4 (ail players); before Game 2,99 ± 7 (CHO group) and 81 ± 7 (controls); and after Game 2, 46 ± 6 (CHO group) and 44 ± 5 (controls). Distance skated, number of shifts skated, amount of time skated within shifts, and skating speed improved with CHO loading. It was concluded that individual differences in performance could be related to muscle glycogen metabolism.

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Erica H. Gavel, Heather M. Logan-Sprenger, Joshua Good, Ira Jacobs, and Scott G. Thomas

Purpose: The effects of menthol (MEN) mouth rinse (MR) on performance, physiological, and perceptual variables in female cyclists during a 30-km independent time trial (ITT) were tested. Methods: The participants (n = 9) cycled for 30 km in hot conditions (30°C [0.6°C], 70% [1%] relative humidity, 12 [1] km/h wind speed) on 2 test occasions: with a placebo MR and with MEN MR. Handgrip and a 5-second sprint were measured before, following the first MR, and after the ITT. Ratings of perceived exertion Borg 6 to 20, thermal sensation, and thermal pleasantness were recorded every 5 km. Core temperature and heart rate were recorded throughout. Results: The ITT performance significantly improved with MEN MR by 2.3% (2.7%) relative to the placebo (62.6 [5.7] vs 64.0 [4.9] min P = .034; d = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 2.8 min). The average power output was significantly higher in the MEN trial (P = .031; d = 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 15.0 W). No significant interaction of time and MR for handgrip (P = .581, η 2 = .04) or sprint was observed (P = .365, η 2 = .103). Core temperature, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and thermal sensation did not significantly differ between trials at set distances (P > .05). Pleasantness significantly differed between the placebo and MEN only at 5 km, with no differences at other TT distances. Conclusion: These results suggest that a nonthermal cooling agent can improve 30-km ITT performance in female cyclists, although the improved performance with MEN MR is not due to altered thermal perception.

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Andrew C. Morris, Ira Jacobs, Tom M. McLellan, Abbey Klugerman, Lawrence C.H. Wang, and Jiri Zamecnik

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ginseng extract ingestion on physiological responses to intense exercise. Subjects performed a control ride (CN) on a cycle ergometer, followed by placebo (PL) and ginseng (GS) treatments. Ginseng was ingested as 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days prior to trial GS. Venous blood was sampled for FFA, lactate, and glucose analyses. Due to similar findings for both dose groups, the subjects were considered as one group. Lactate, FFA, VO2, VE, and RPE increased significantly from 10 through 40 min. RER increased during the first 10 min of exercise and then remained stable, with no intertrial differences. Glucose did not vary significantly from 0 to 40 min or among treatments. RPE was significantly greater and time to exhaustion was significantly less during trial CN than PL or GS, while PL and GS trials were similar. The data indicated that with 1 week of pretreatment there is no ergogenic effect of ingesting the ginseng saponin extract.

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Jennifer Zink, David A. Berrigan, Miranda M. Broadney, Faizah Shareef, Alexia Papachristopoulou, Sheila M. Brady, Shanna B. Bernstein, Robert J. Brychta, Jacob D. Hattenbach, Ira L. Tigner Jr., Amber B. Courville, Bart E. Drinkard, Kevin P. Smith, Douglas R. Rosing, Pamela L. Wolters, Kong Y. Chen, Jack A. Yanovski, and Britni R. Belcher

Purpose: Sedentary time relates to higher anxiety and more negative affect in children. This study assessed whether interrupting sitting over 3 hours is sufficient to influence state anxiety, positive affect, or negative affect, and tested weight status as a moderator. Methods: Analyses were the second (preplanned) purpose of a larger study. Children (N = 61; age: mean [SD] = 9.5 [1.3]; 43% healthy weight) completed 2 experimental conditions: continuous sitting for 3 hours and sitting for 3 hours interrupted with walking for 3 minutes in every 30 minutes. State anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect were reported at pretest and posttest. Multilevel models for repeated measures assessed whether experimental condition predicted posttest scores. Results: Experimental condition was unrelated to posttest state anxiety or positive affect. Weight status moderated how experimental condition influenced posttest negative affect (P = .003). Negative affect was lower in the children of healthy weight after interrupted sitting (vs continuous sitting; β = −0.8; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to 0.0, P = .05), but it was higher in the children with overweight/obesity after interrupted sitting (vs continuous sitting; β = 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.0 to 1.2, P = .06). Conclusions: Interrupting sitting acutely reduced negative affect in children of healthy weight, but not in children with overweight. Further research is needed to better understand the potential emotional benefits of sitting interruptions in youth.