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  • Author: Iraklis I. Pipinos x
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Jessie M. Huisinga, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Nicholas Stergiou and Jason M. Johanning

Pharmacological treatment has been used to alleviate the claudication symptoms and improve walking performance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. However, the effects of claudication treatments on gait mechanics have not been objectively indentified with biomechanical techniques. For this study, 20 PAD patients were assigned to take either pentoxifylline (n = 11) or cilostazol (n = 9), the two FDA-approved pharmacological therapies used to treat intermittent claudication symptoms. All patients completed a gait evaluation protocol that involved the acquisition of kinematic and kinetic gait data before use of the medication and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results showed that treatment with either pentoxifylline or cilostazol resulted in limited overall improvement in gait parameters including joint angles and joint moments. Walking speed was unchanged, in either treatment group, as a result of the medication. These results suggest that to improve biomechanical walking parameters of PAD patients, clinicians cannot rely on drug therapies alone.

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Jennifer M. Yentes, Jessie M. Huisinga, Sara A. Myers, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Jason M. Johanning and Nicholas Stergiou

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis resulting in intermittent claudication (IC) or leg pain during physical activity. Two drugs (cilostazol and pentoxifylline) are approved for treatment of IC. Our previous work has reported no significant differences in gait biomechanics before and after drug interventions when PAD patients walked without pain. However, it is possible that the drugs are more efficacious during gait with pain. Our aim was to use advanced biomechanical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of these drugs while walking with pain. Initial and absolute claudication distances, joint kinematics, torques, powers, and gait velocity during the presence of pain were measured from 24 patients before and after 12 weeks of treatment with either cilostazol or pentoxifylline. We found no significant improvements after 12 weeks of treatment with either cilostazol or pentoxifylline on the gait biomechanics of PAD patients during pain. Our findings indicate that the medications cilostazol and pentoxifylline have reduced relevance in the care of gait dysfunction even during pain in patients with PAD.

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John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos and Sara A. Myers

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant leg dysfunction. The effects of PAD on gait include shortened steps, slower walking velocity, and altered gait kinematics and kinetics, which may confound joint torques and power measurements. Spatiotemporal parameters and joint torques and powers were calculated and compared between 20 patients with PAD and 20 healthy controls using independent t tests. Separate analysis of covariance models were used to evaluate group differences after independently adjusting for gait velocity, stride length, and step width. Compared with healthy controls, patients with PAD exhibited reduced peak extensor and flexor torques at the knee and hip. After adjusting for all covariates combined, differences between groups remained for ankle power generation in late stance and knee flexor torque. Reduced walking velocity observed in subjects affected by PAD was closely connected with reductions in joint torques and powers during gait. Gait differences remained at the knee and ankle after adjusting for the combined effect of spatiotemporal parameters. Improving muscle function through exercise or with the use of assistive devices needs to be a key tool in the development of interventions that aim to enhance the ability of PAD patients to restore spatiotemporal gait parameters.