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A Qualitative Investigation of Young Female Dancers’ Use of Imagery

Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler, and Todd Loughead

Although dancers have noted using imagery to mentally rehearse a routine, understand and reinforce movement, inspire strong emotions, and lower arousal levels, this finding is specific to adult dancers, overlooking imagery use with young dancers. The current study qualitatively examined the 4 Ws of imagery use (where, when, what, and why) with female dancers 7–14 years of age. Twenty-three female dancers (M age = 10.43, SD = 2.19) from various dance styles participated in 1 of 4 focus-group discussions. Thematic analysis revealed findings similar to those identified in the domains of both adult dance and children’s sport. There were, however, findings emerging from the current study specific to young female dancers. These findings are provided, in addition to practical implications for dance instructors.

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An Examination of a Dissonance-Based Body Image Promotion Intervention: A Case Study of Youth Female Soccer Players

Katherine E. Hirsch, Irene L. Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler, and Todd M. Loughead

The present case study aimed to modify, implement, and evaluate a sport-specific dissonance-based body image promotion intervention for female adolescent athletes. The case included 33 female adolescent soccer players (11–14 years old) who completed the Youth-Female Athlete Body Project, a 4-week team-based intervention. The intervention was evaluated using quantitative measures gathered pre- and postintervention and qualitative responses from focus groups that were administered 1-week postintervention. The quantitative assessments examined body-ideal internalization, aesthetic and functional body image, perceived body shape, and fat talk. Significant decreases in participants’ thin-ideal and muscular-ideal internalization as well as fat talk were found postintervention. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants (n = 24) to gather insight into the positives and negatives of the intervention, intervention outcomes, and recommendations for future intervention delivery. Reflections from the practitioners are provided and recommendations for effective intervention implementation from practitioners’ and participants’ perspectives are discussed.

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Youth Female Ice Hockey Players’ Enjoyment and Commitment to Sport

Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler, and Irene Muir

The purpose of this study was to identify sport-specific predictors of youth female athletes’ sport commitment and sport enjoyment. Based on the expectancy-value model, athletic identity and gender stereotypes were hypothesized to predict sport commitment and sport enjoyment in ice hockey, which has a masculine gender association. Participants consisted of 130 (89.2% Caucasian) youth female ice hockey players (M age = 11.7, SD = 2.6). They completed measures of athletic identity; personal gender beliefs; perceived gender beliefs of parents, teammates, siblings, and the general population; and two outcome measures: sport commitment and sport enjoyment. The prediction model for sport commitment was significant, F(7, 122) = 9.56, p < .001, and accounted for 35.4% of the variance. The prediction model for sport enjoyment was also significant, F(7, 122) = 2.25, p < .01, and accounted for 11.5% of the variance. Overall, youth female ice hockey players held pro-feminine beliefs about competence and values of girls in hockey. Participants’ personal gender beliefs correlated moderately with perceived gender beliefs of their (socializers) parents, teammates, and the general population (r = .54–.56), suggesting youth female ice hockey players’ pro-feminine beliefs might be informed by these social influences. However, two multiple mediation analyses found no support for the hypotheses that personally held stereotypes mediated the link between all four socially based gender stereotypes and enjoyment and commitment.