Muscle soreness, a familiar phenomenon to most athletes, has been differentiated into “acute” and “delayed onset.” The etiology of acute muscle soreness has been attributed to ischemia and the accumulation of metabolic by-products. However, the etiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is not so clear. Six theories have been proposed: lactic acid, muscle spasm, torn tissue, connective tissue, enzyme efflux, and tissue fluid theories. The treatment of DOMS has also been investigated. Studies in which anti-inflammatory medications have been administered have yielded varying results based on the dosage and the time of administration. Submaximal concentric exercise may alleviate soreness but does not restore muscle function. Neither cryotherapy nor stretching abates the symptoms of DOMS. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been shown to decrease soreness and increase range of motion, but the effect on the recovery of muscle function is unknown. Therefore, the treatment of DOMS remains an enigma.
Dawn T. Gulick and Iris F. Kimura
Christine Bocchinfuso, Michael R. Sitler and Iris F. Kimura
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two semirigid prophylactic ankle stabilizers on vertical jump, 80-ft sprint, shuttle run, and four-point run performance. Eight male and seven female high school basketball players, who denied prior ankle injury and prophylactic ankle stabilizer experience, completed the four performance events under the conditions of Active Ankle Training Brace, Aircast SportStirrup, and nonbraced control. Data analyses consisted of four 1 × 3 ANOVAs with repeated measures on the independent variable of brace condition. Results of the analysis revealed no significant differences among the experimental conditions for any of the performance events tested. In conclusion, the Active Ankle Training Brace and Aircast SportStirrup did not facilitate or adversely affect performance involving speed, agility, and vertical jump of high school basketball players.
Alison Locke, Michael Sitler, Christopher Aland and Iris Kimura
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a softshell prophylactic ankle stabilizer (PAS) on performance in events involving speed, agility, and vertical jump during long-term use. The events examined were the 24.384-m sprint, 12.192-m shuttle ran, and vertical jump. Subjects were high school basketball players who were randomly assigned to either a PAS (n = 11) or a nonbraced control (n = 13) group. Results of the study revealed that the softshell PAS had no significant effect on any of the three performance events tested over a 3-month basketball season. However, there was a significant difference in 24.384-m sprint and 12.192-m shuttle run times across test sessions regardless of treatment group. In conclusion, the softshell PAS neither enhanced nor inhibited performance in activities involving speed, agility, or vertical jump during long-term use.
Caroline E. Penderghest, Iris F. Kimura and Dawn T. Gulick
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of dexametha-sone-lidocaine (DX-L) phonophoresis on perceived pain associated with symptomatic tendinitis. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to a DX-L or placebo phoresis group. All subjects received strengthening, stretching, and cryotherapy. Five double-blind sessions were administered over a 5- to 10-day period, with 24 to 48 hr between sessions. Perceived pain was quantified using a visual perceived pain scale (VPPS) and a punctate tenderness gauge (PTG). Data were collected before stretching, strengthening, and DX-L/placebo phoresis treatments, 1 min after treatment, and 10 min after cryotherapy. There were no significant differences for VPPS or PTG between groups. There was a significant difference between treatment sessions, regardless of group or test, and there were significant decreases in perceived pain between Tests 1 and 3 and between Treatment Sessions 1 and 5. It was concluded that stretching, strengthening, and cryotherapy significantly decreased the levels of perceived pain associated with symptomatic tendinitis regardless of whether the subjects received phonophoresis.
Michael Ra, Michael Sitler, Jeff Ryan, Raymond Moyer, Paul Marchetto, John Kelly and Iris Kimura
Chondral lesions often occur in the knee as isolated defects or part of more complex injuries. Articular cartilage defects decrease the ability of the knee to sustain weight-bearing loads and may accelerate degeneration of the joint when left untreated. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, functional, and radiographic outcome of arthroscopic abrasion chondroplasty of the knee. The Articular Cartilage Rating System was used to assess the location, size, depth, and description of the articular lesion. The Standard Knee Evaluation Form and Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale were used to assess the clinical, functional, and radiographic outcome of the procedure. Average time to postsurgery follow-up was 46 ± 26.69 months. Within the constraints of the present study, arthroscopic abrasion chondroplasty of the knee had a favorable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcome. However, more study is needed with larger samples and longer follow-up before definitive conclusions about the efficacy of the procedure can be made.
Iris F. Kimura, LouAnne M. Jefferson, Dawn T. Gulick and R. David Coll
The purpose of this study was to investigate intratester and intertester reliability when using the Chatillon and MicroFet hand-held dynamometers (HHDs) to measure isometric force production of the wrist extensors, elbow flexors, ankle dorsiflexors, and knee extensors. Twelve subjects participated, with each joint tested four times with each HHD. Intratester and intertester intraclass con-elation coefficients were measured for both devices separately and between the devices- Results indicated that the HHDs were more reliable when used by a single examiner who had been properly trained in their use. Reliability of the HHDs appears to be affected by both the magnitude of the force produced by the subject and the examiner's ability to resist the force. There was no correlation between examiner's stature and consistent force production values. Caution should be taken when interpreting data obtained from different testers or different HHDs. The same clinician should use the same HHD for successive tests to yield the most reliable data.
Rachele E. Vogelpohl, Rachel A. Lindsey, Christopher D. Stickley, Ronald K. Hetzler, Whitney Williams and Iris F. Kimura
Subconcussive head impacts do not result in outward signs of neurological dysfunction, however they may have an effect on neurocognitive function. Limited research has indicated that negative changes in neurocognitive function occurs in high school football athletes as a result of one season of football. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effects of one season of high school football on neurocognitive test scores. Results revealed a significant group and time interaction effect (p < .001) for the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test. Further analysis revealed a significant difference in the Verbal Memory score between groups at postseason (p < .01), with the football group scoring lower than the low contact group. It appears that one season of high school football may have a negative effect on the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test in high school football athletes.