Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, η2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 η2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.
Taís L. Almeida, Neil B. Alexander, Linda V. Nyquist, Marcos L. Montagnini, Angela C.S. Santos, Giselle H.P. Rodrigues, Carlos E. Negrão, Ivani C. Trombetta and Mauricio Wajngarten
Alexandre G. da Silva, Mauricio M. Ribeiro, Ivani C. Trombetta, Christiane Nicolau, Eliana Frazzatto, Isabel Guazzelli, Luciana N. J. Matos, Alfredo Halpern, Carlos E. Negrão and Sandra M.F. Villares
This study examined forearm vasodilatation during mental challenge and exercise in 72 obese children (OC; age = 10 ± 0.1 years) homozygous with polymorphism in the allele 27 of the β2-adrenoceptors: Gln27 (n = 61) and Glu27 (n = 11). Forearm blood flow was recorded during 3 min of each using the Stroop color-word test (MS) and handgrip isometric exercise. Baseline hemodynamic and vascular measurements were similar. During the MS, peak forearm vascular conductance was significantly greater in group Glu27 (Δ = 0.35 ± 0.4 vs. 0.12 ± 0.1 units, respectively, p = .042). Similar results were found during exercise (Δ = 0.64 ± 0.1 vs. 0.13 ± 0.1 units, respectively, p = .035). Glu27 OC increased muscle vasodilatory responsiveness upon the MS and exercise.