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J. Michael Martinez

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J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill

Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.

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Chad Seifried, Chris Barnhill, and J. Michael Martinez

This study examined knowledge creation by faculty currently employed in North American sport management doctoral programs relative to program structure (i.e., integrated or traditional). Faculty curricula vitae were collected to ascertain average annual publications, presentations, and publications by student advisees. Publication data were subcategorized by publication quality and authorship level. The analysis revealed that faculty employed in doctoral programs with integrated structures annually produced more publications and published in higher quality journals at a greater rate than their colleagues in traditional sport management doctoral programs. Data also revealed that as a collective, sport management faculty and student advisees are publishing and presenting at significantly higher rates in the current decade than in years prior.

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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri, and Michael G. Miller

Purpose: Although the effect of caffeine in thermoneutral or cool environmental conditions has generally shown performance benefits, its efficacy in hot, humid conditions is not as well known. The purpose of this study was to further examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on endurance running performance in the heat. Methods: Ten trained endurance runners (6 males; mean [SD] age = 26 [9] y, height = 176.7 [5.1] cm, and mass = 72.1 [8.7] kg) came to the lab for 4 visits. The first was a VO2max test to determine cardiorespiratory fitness; the final 3 visits were 10-km runs in an environmental chamber at 30.6°C and 50% relative humidity under different conditions: 3 mg·kg−1 body mass (low caffeine dosage), 6 mg·kg−1 (moderate caffeine dosage), and a placebo. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to determine the effect of condition on the 10-km time, heart rate, core temperature, rating of perceived exertion, and thermal sensation. Results: There was no difference in the 10-km time between the placebo (53.2 [8.0] min), 3-mg·kg−1 (53.4 [8.4]), and 6-mg·kg−1 (52.7 [8.2]) conditions (P = .575, η p 2 = .060 ). There was not a main effect of average heart rate (P = .406, η p 2 = .107 ), rating of perceived exertion (P = .151, η p 2 = .189 ), or thermal sensation (P = .286, η p 2 = .130 ). There was a significant interaction for core temperature (P = .025, η p 2 = .170 ); the moderate-dosage caffeine condition showed a higher rate of rise in core temperature (0.26 [0.08] °C·km−1 vs 0.20 [0.06] and 0.19 [0.10] °C·km−1 in the low-caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively). Conclusion: The results support previous research showing a thermogenic effect of caffeine, as the moderate-dosage condition led to a greater rate of heat storage and no performance benefits.

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Erik J. Timmermans, Suzan van der Pas, Elaine M. Dennison, Stefania Maggi, Richard Peter, Maria Victoria Castell, Nancy L. Pedersen, Michael D. Denkinger, Mark H. Edwards, Federica Limongi, Florian Herbolsheimer, Mercedes Sánchez-Martínez, Paola Siviero, Rocio Queipo, Laura A. Schaap, Dorly J.H. Deeg, and for the EPOSA research group


Older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) often report that their disease symptoms are exacerbated by weather conditions. This study examines the association between outdoor physical activity (PA) and weather conditions in older adults from 6 European countries and assesses whether outdoor PA and weather conditions are more strongly associated in older persons with OA than in those without the condition.


The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA. Outdoor PA was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on weather parameters were obtained from weather stations.


Of the 2439 participants (65–85 years), 29.6% had OA in knee, hand and/or hip. Participants with OA spent fewer minutes in PA than participants without OA (Median = 42.9, IQR = 20.0 to 83.1 versus Median = 51.4, IQR = 23.6 to 98.6; P < .01). In the full sample, temperature (B = 1.52; P < .001) and relative humidity (B = –0.77; P < .001) were associated with PA. Temperature was more strongly associated with PA in participants without OA (B = 1.98; P < .001) than in those with the condition (B = 0.48; P = .47).


Weather conditions are associated with outdoor PA in older adults in the general population. Outdoor PA and weather conditions were more strongly associated in older adults without OA than in their counterparts with OA.

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Palma ChiMón, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, David Martínez-Gómez, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnar, Frédéric Gottrand, Marcela González-Gross, Dianne S. Ward, Luis A. Moreno, Manuel J. Castillo, and Michael Sjöström

Chillón and Ruiz are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Granada, Spain. Chillón and Ward are with the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Ortega, Ruiz and Sjöström are with the Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Ortega and Castillo are with the Department of Medical Physiology, University of Granada, Spain. De Bourdeaudhuij is with the Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Martínez-Gómez is with the Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain. Vicente-Rodríguez and Moreno are with Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain. Widhalm is with the Department of Paediatrics, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Molnar is with the Deprtment of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Hungary. Gottrand is with Inserm U995, University Lille2 and CIC-9301-CH&U-Inserm, University Hospital of Lille, France. González-Gross is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.