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James E. Johnson, T.J. Herniak, Kelly Kwiatkowski and Amy Hill

Child protective services is a broad category that impacts a variety of organizations who work directly with children. Youth sport and recreation organizations, as well as universities who have youth services, are uniquely positioned for increased risk from coaches, counselors, volunteers, or administrators who have regular access to youth via their roles as trusted leaders. Sport management graduates often find themselves in these positions, or supervising individuals who hold these positions. With this premise in mind, it is essential that sport management students are exposed to the concept of child protection, and understand the potential ramifications if child protective measures are not followed. This case describes an incident occurring at a university kid’s camp where student employees serve as counselors. The incident places one counselor in a precarious situation, and forces his supervisor into some difficult decisions. The case allows students to evaluate the situation from an assortment of sport management perspectives including governance/policy considerations, legal ramifications, organizational theory, or ethical decision-making. Discussion questions encourage students to confront these perspectives and consider the role of child protection from a variety of vantage points (e.g., counselor, parent, administrator).

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J. Vincent, Charles Imwold, J. T. Johnson and Dwayne Massey

This study was a comparison of how selected newspapers from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States reported on female athletes competing in four “gender-appropriate” sports with female athletes competing in four “gender-inappropriate” sports at the Centennial Olympic Games. The liberal feminist theoretical framework underpinning this study views equality of opportunity and individual liberty as an inevitable by-product of political, legal, and educational reform juxtaposed with a gradual social acceptance. Content Analysis was used to examine all the articles and photographs from the front pages and the sports sections of the newspapers. Based upon the data, female athletes competing in the “gender-appropriate” sports of swimming, gymnastics, tennis, and diving received more newspaper coverage than female athletes competing in the “gender-inappropriate” sports of soccer, softball, field hockey, and volleyball in terms of the average number of words per article and the average number of paragraphs per article. In addition, the “gender-appropriate” athletes were over-represented in the average number of photographs, the average number of photographs on the first page, and the average number of photographs on the top of the pages. Qualitative analyses of articles and photographs revealed a subtle but discernable amount of culturally stereotyped coverage.

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J.D. Adams, Stavros A. Kavouras, Evan C. Johnson, Lisa T. Jansen, Catalina Capitan-Jimenez, Joseph I. Robillard and Andy Mauromoustakos

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22 °C, 7 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). UOsm was stable at 22 °C, for 1 day (+5–9 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05) and at 7 °C, UOsm up to 7 days (+8–8 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05). At -20 and -80 °C, UOsm decreased after 1, 2, and 7 days (9–61 mmol∙kg-1, p < .05). Vortexing the sample before analysis further decreased only UOsm in the -20 °C and -80 °C storage. USG remained stable up to 7 days when samples were stored in 22 °C or 7 °C (p > .05) but declined significantly when stored in -20 °C, and -80 °C (p < .001). UC was not stable in any of the storing conditions for 1, 2, and 7 days. In conclusion, these data indicate that urine specimens analyzed for UOsm or USG remained stable in refrigerated (7 °C) environment for up to 7 days, and in room temperature for 1 day. However, freezing (-20 and -80 °C) samples significantly decreased the values of hydration markers.

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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Walking cadence (steps per minute) is associated with the intensity of ambulatory behavior. This analysis provides normative values for peak 30-min cadence, an indicator of “natural best effort” during free-living behavior. A sample of 1,196 older adults (aged from 60 to 85+) with accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 was used. Peak 30-min cadence was calculated for each individual. Quintile-defined values were computed, stratified by sex and age groups. Smoothed sex-specific centile curves across the age span were fitted using the LMS method. Peak 30-min cadence generally trended lower as age increased. The uppermost quintile value was >85 steps/min (men: 60–64 years), and the lowermost quintile value was <22 steps/min (women: 85+). The highest 95th centile value was 103 steps/min (men: 64–70 years), and the lowest 5th centile value was 15 steps/min (women: 85+). These normative values may be useful for evaluating older adults’ “natural best effort” during free-living ambulatory behavior.

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Travis W. Beck, Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson, Joseph P. Weir, Joel T. Cramer, Jared W. Coburn and Moh H. Malek

This study compared the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and mean power frequency vs. torque relationships in men and women during isometric muscle actions of the biceps brachii. Seven men (mean age 23.9 ± 3.5 yrs) and 8 women (mean 21.0 ± 1.3 yrs) performed submaximal to maximal isometric muscle actions of the dominant forearm flexors. Following determination of the isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), they randomly performed submaximal step muscle actions in 10% increments from 10% to 90% MVC. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that the MMG amplitude vs. isometric torque relationship for the men was best fit with a cubic model (R 2 = 0.983), where MMG amplitude increased slightly from 10% to 20% MVC, increased rapidly from 20% to 80% MVC, and plateaued from 80% to 100% MVC. For the women, MMG amplitude increased linearly (r 2 = 0.949) from 10% to 100% MVC. Linear models also provided the best fit for the MMG mean power frequency vs. isometric torque relationship in both the men (r 2 = 0.813) and women (r 2 = 0.578). The results demonstrated gender differences in the MMG amplitude vs. isometric torque relationship, but similar torque-related patterns for MMG mean power frequency. These findings suggested that the plateau in MMG amplitude at high levels of isometric torque production for the biceps brachii in the men, but not the women, may have been due to greater isometric torque, muscle stiffness, and/or intramuscular fluid pressure in the men, rather than to differences in motor unit activation strategies for modulating isometric torque production.

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Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael A. Pickering, Nicole Glenn, Sandra L. Doze, Melissa L. Reinbold-Matthews, Laura J. McLeod, David C. W. Lau, Gordon H. Fick, Steven T. Johnson and Laura Flaman

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This pilot investigation explores the effects of a standard diabetes education program compared with a supplemental PA intervention on diabetes-related health outcomes.

Methods:

Using a prospective 2-armed design, 96 adults with T2DM were randomly assigned to either standard care (diabetes education program; n = 49) or standard care supplemented with an 8-week, individualized-counseling and community-based PA component (n = 47). Measurements were taken at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcomes were changes in PA (self-report) and HbA1c. Between group changes were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and changes over time using repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

In comparison with standard care, the supplemental group demonstrated an increase in PA (Ps < 0.01) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Ps < 0.05) from baseline to all follow-up time-points. HbA1c levels declined (P < .05) from baseline to all time points in the standard care group. Reduction in cholesterol-ratio (P < .01), increase in HDL (P < .05), and reductions in blood pressure, resting heart rate and BMI (approaching statistical significance Ps < 0.10) were also reported for both groups.

Conclusions:

PA counseling in addition to standard care is effective for promoting PA behavior change and positive health-related outcomes among individuals with T2DM.