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Vincent J. Granito Jr. and Betty J. Wenz

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Susan Vincent Graser, Robert P. Pangrazi and William J. Vincent

Background:

The purpose was to determine if waist placement of the pedometer effected accuracy in normal, overweight, and obese children, when attaching the pedometer to the waistband or a belt.

Methods:

Seventy-seven children (ages 10-12 y) wore five pedometers on the waistband of their pants and a belt at the following placements: navel (NV), anterior midline of the right thigh (AMT), right side (RS), posterior midline of the right thigh (PMT), and middle of the back (MB). Participants walked 100 steps on a treadmill at 80 m · min−1.

Results:

The RS, PMT, and MB sites on the waistband and the AMT and RS sites on the belt produced the least error.

Conclusions:

Of these sites the RS placement is recommended because of the ease of reading the pedometer during activity. Using a belt did not significantly improve accuracy except for normal weight groups at the NV placement site.

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Timothy J. Bungum and Murray Vincent

Purposes of this study included the identification of physical activity (PA) levels, and the types of activity, as well as the determination of racial differences in these factors between African-American (AA) (n=626) and White (WH) (n=226) adolescent females.

PA was measured using a one week recall. Approximately 1/2 of WH and 1/3 of AA female adolescents were sufficiently physically active (Blair, 1992) to produce health benefits. Less than twenty-five percent of study participants met a newly established guideline addressing moderate to vigorous PA (Sallis & Patrick, 1994). Younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents.

Accounting for differences in age and socioeconomic status WH females were more active than AA females. African-American and WH females participated in similar types of activity. Walking was the most frequently cited mode of activity.

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Vincent J. Melograno and E. Michael Loovis

Results of comprehensive surveys (1980 and 1988) were compared relative to physical education for handicapped students. A direct, self-report methodology was used. Statewide (Ohio) samples of 241 (1980) and 242 (1988) physical education teachers participated. Data indicated that the status of physical education for handicapped students had remained the same. By 1988, only 14% of the teachers had contributed to a multidisciplinary staff for developing IEPs. Teachers’ lack of knowledge of PL 94-142 was revealed in both years, and interest in teaching handicapped students was no better than “neutral/mixed” (1988). A majority of teachers in 1980 and 1988 indicated a general need for assistance in motor behavior assessments. By 1988 a majority of teachers (51%) had not received encouragement/support from their administration. In both years, over 75% believed that handicapped students are excluded from participation in physical education due to “nature of handicap” and “functional ability.” Overall, results in 1980 were reaffirmed in 1988. Teachers lacked the ability to provide appropriate physical education for handicapped students.

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Chester R. Kyle and Vincent j. Caiozzo

A comparison of six methods of measuring maximal human power output is given. The methods are as follows: the standard bicycle ergometer and modified bicycle ergometer (revised so that a standard racing bicycle and a higher applied torque could be used); a bicycle ridden on a treadmill; an unbraked flywheel bicycle ergometer; power using bicycle wind and rolling resistance measurements; running up stairs with weights; and running up a ramp with weights. Power output was. measured for time periods varying from less than 1 sec to 20 min. Power from the different methods agreed quite well. Example data are given for leg exercise, arm and leg exercise, and cycling in the prone, supine, and standard cycling positions.

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Mary A. Painter, Kathleen B. Inman and William J. Vincent

The effects of contextual interference on motor skill acquisition and retention were examined in 24 subjects (mean age 13.9 years) with mild mental retardation and 24 chronologically age-matched subjects (mean age 13.11 years) with no disabilities. Subjects from each group were assigned randomly to either a blocked or a random practice schedule. All subjects performed 15 practice trials for each of three different beanbag throwing tasks, 45 trials total. Following a 10-min filled retention interval, 2 trials of each throw (6 total) were performed in a random order by all subjects. Accuracy scores were measured as absolute error from the target. The data revealed a significant interaction between ability groups and practice schedule. Post hoc analyses revealed that the retention scores of the mildly mentally handicapped subjects practicing under blocked conditions were significantly less accurate than scores of any of the other three acquisition groups. Significant effects in variable error retention scores indicated that subjects in the random practice condition performed more consistently than subjects in the blocked condition.

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Vincent J. Leavey, Michelle A. Sandrey and Greg Dahmer

Context:

There are few outcomes-based studies that address hip strategy and gluteus medius strength (GMS) for maintaining dynamic postural control.

Objective:

To determine whether GMS training, proprioception training, or a combination of the 2 has an effect on dynamic postural control.

Design:

Pretest-posttest, repeated measures.

Setting:

Sports-medicine clinic.

Participants:

48 healthy male and female college students obtained via sample of convenience.

Interventions:

Three 6-wk programs including exercises for proprioception, GMS, and combined.

Main Outcomes Measures:

Eight Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances and GMS for the dominant leg.

Results:

There was no significant difference between groups. The combination group demonstrated the most improvements in SEBT reach distances, whereas the GMS group demonstrated the most improvement in GMS.

Conclusion:

Use of exercises for proprioception, GMS, or a combination of the 2 will help improve dynamic postural control in healthy, active individuals.

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Jordan L. Fox, Nattai R. Borges, Ben J. Dascombe and Vincent J. Dalbo

Purpose:

The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity.

Methods:

Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0–10, 0–20, 0–30, and 0–40 min).

Results:

sRPE TL increased (P < .05) after the first 10-min bout of basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66–.69; P < .05) across 0–10 and 0–20 min. Similarly, mean sprint and circuit speed were significantly correlated across 0–20 min (r = .67; P < .05). In contrast, SHRZ and Banister TRIMP were significantly related across all training doses (r = .84–.89; P < .05).

Conclusions:

Limited convergence exists between common TL approaches across basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

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Michael A. Tabor, George J. Davies, Thomas W. Kernozek, Rodney J. Negrete and Vincent Hudson

Context:

Many clinicians use functional-performance tests to determine an athlete’s readiness to resume activity; however, research demonstrating reliability of these tests is limited.

Objective:

To introduce the Lower Extremity Functional Test (LEFT) and establish it as a reliable assessment tool.

Design:

Week 1: Subjects participated in a training session. Week 2: Initial maximal-effort time measurements were recorded. Week 3: Retest time measurements were recorded.

Setting:

The University of Wisconsin–La Crosse (UW-L) and the University of Central Florida (UCF).

Subjects:

27 subjects from UW-L and 30 from UCF.

Main Outcome Measures:

Time measurements were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

Results:

ICC values of .95 and .97 were established at UW-L and UCF, respectively.

Conclusions:

The LEFT is a reliable assessment tool.