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International Sport Management (2nd Edition)

J.C. Kim

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Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints

J.C. Kim

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Interview with John Archibald, Vice President of Communications at Sky Blue Football Club, National Women’s Soccer League

J.C. Kim and Paddy Seitz

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Chapter 9: Will PETE Survive in the 21st Century?

Thomas J. Templin, Kim C. Graber, and K. Andrew R. Richards

Physical education teacher education is at a “tipping point” in history, where the survivability of the profession in many institutions of higher education may be in question. This monograph reflects an initial attempt to understand recruitment and retention in physical education teacher education programs from the perspective of program coordinators. The purpose of this culminating chapter is to connect key points identified throughout the monograph and critically assess how the results add to the knowledge base in physical education teacher education. The chapter authors present a historical perspective on reduced enrollments and identified strategies for the promotion of student recruitment and retention. It will become evident that if a favorable future for physical education is to become reality, then a vision must be developed and enacted through the concentrated efforts of multiple stakeholders who have the time and commitment necessary to enact positive change at local, state, and national levels.

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Promoting Quality Undergraduate Education in Kinesiology

Thomas J. Templin, Jason R. Carter, and Kim C. Graber

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Sports Reforms and Coaches’ Spoiled Identities: An Analysis of Structural Stigma

Yoon Jin Kim and Marcelle C. Dawson

This article explores how sports coaches’ identity and social relations are shaped within the context of new policy initiatives in sport. It focuses particularly on South Korea’s ongoing sports reforms wherein sports coaches feel stigmatized and disgraced. Informed by classic and contemporary sociological understandings of stigma and relying both on documents and narratives from 29 individuals, our qualitative analysis reveals that Korean coaches’ stigma is discrediting, prior-known, and power-laden. By viewing stigmatization as a social process constructed both “symbolically” and “structurally,” this article extends Goffman’s analysis to argue that coaches’ stigmatization is rooted in the social, institutional, and political power around sports reforms that forge stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs across society by offering ready-made scripts for both the stigmatized and the “normals.”

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Factors Associated With High School Physical Education Teachers’ Adoption of a Supplemental Online Instructional System (iPE)

Chad M. Killian, Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, and Thomas J. Templin

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with high school physical education (PE) teachers’ adoption of a supplemental online instructional system. Method: Semistructured, open-ended phone interviews with 28 high school PE teachers were used as the primary data collection method. All teachers were using or had used a supplemental online instructional system at the time of the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the directed content analysis. Results: Four main categories were generated, including perceived programmatic, instructional, and inclusivity improvements; minimal personal and student usage effort; school and curriculum provider support facilitated use; and administrators’ dictated long-term use. Discussion/Conclusion: The results aligned well with the UTAUT and served to situate the theory within the secondary PE context. The participants’ perceptions and experiences were also contradictory to much of the current research on teachers’ technology adoption in PE and K–12 education, more generally.

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ACE I/D Genotype, Habitual Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in Children

Mark A. Sarzynski, Joey C. Eisenmann, Gregory J. Welk, Jared Tucker, Kim Glenn, Max Rothschild, and Kate Heelan

The present study examined the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, physical activity, and resting blood pressure (BP) in a sample of 132 children (48.4% female). Children attaining 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) possessed lower % body fat (29% vs 24%, p < .05). Resting BP did not significantly differ between genotypes. Furthermore, partial correlations between MVPA and BP were low and did not vary by ACE genotype. Thus, the ACE I/D genotype is not associated with BP and does not modify the relationship between physical activity and BP in this sample of children.

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The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Resilience in Physical Education Teacher Education Faculty Perceived Mattering

K. Andrew R. Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Christopher J. Kinder, Kim C. Graber, and Amelia Mays Woods

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to test a conceptual framework for understanding the role of emotional intelligence and resilience in the development of perceived mattering among U.S. physical education teacher education faculty using structural equation modeling. Method: The sample included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males), and the data were collected through an online survey that included instruments to measure key study variables. The primary analyses used structural equation modeling to evaluate relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model. Results: While not all hypothesized relationships in the model were significant, generally, the results confirmed the hypothesized relationships among the study variables, suggesting that resilience mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived mattering. Discussion: Socioemotional skills, such as emotional intelligence, appear important for helping physical education teacher education faculty members perceive resiliency and mattering in their work. Accordingly, these skills should be considered for doctoral education and faculty development programs.

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Successful After-School Physical Activity Clubs in Urban High Schools: Perspectives of Adult Leaders and Student Participants

Alex C. Garn, Nate McCaughtry, Noel L. Kulik, Michele Kaseta, Kim Maljak, Laurel Whalen, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, and Mariane Fahlman

Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders’ and students’ perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n = 278) and adult leaders (n = 126). Results highlighted interconnections among personal and environmental facilitators such as enthusiastic and caring leaders, multidimensional recruiting strategies, supportive and friendly club climates, and culturally relevant physical activities. Structural barriers such as a lack of administrative support, student hunger, and inadequate transportation options were also identified by leaders and students. While previous after-school physical activity club research has focused primarily on measuring physical activity increases, these students and leaders voiced valuable perspectives that contribute to understand why some initiatives fail and others succeed from a social cognitive theory perspective.