Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I. P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Andrew P. Hills and Glen M Davis
The objective of this study was to verify the long-term effects of exercise on energy expenditure and body composition in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), as very little information is available on this population under free-living conditions.
Free-living energy expenditure and body composition using doubly labeled water (DLW) was measured in 13 individuals with SCI, subdivided in 2 groups: (1) sedentary (SED; N = 7) and (2) regularly engaged in any exercise program, for at least 150 min·wk−1 (EXE; N = 6).
The total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was significantly higher in the EXE group (33 ± 4.5 kcal·kg−1·day−1) if compared with SED group (27 ± 4.3 kcal·kg−1·day−1). The percentage of body fat was significantly higher in SED group than in EXE group (38 ± 6% and 28 ± 9%).
Our findings revealed that, despite the severity of SCI, the actual ACSM’s guidelines for weight management for healthy adults exercise could significantly increase TDEE and BMR and improve body composition in individuals who regularly perform exercise. However, the EXE group still showed a high percentage of body fat, suggesting that a more specific approach might be considered (ie, increased intensity or volume, or combining with a diet program).
Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I.P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Nathan A. Johnson, Andrew P. Hills and Glen M. Davis
The objective of this study was to determine whether doubly labeled water (DLW) and a multi-sensor armband (SWA) could detect the variation in energy expenditure incurred by a period of increased exercise (EXE) versus a period of high sedentary activity (SED), in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).
Eight participants with SCI were submitted to 2 testing periods of energy expenditure assessment: 1) a 14-day phase during which sedentary living conditions were imposed and 2) a 14-day phase during which an exercise training intervention was employed. For each phase, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) were measured by DLW and SWA.
Mean TDEE assessed by DLW, was significantly higher during EXE versus SED (11,605 ± 2151 kJ·day-1 and 10,069 ± 2310 kJ·day-1). PAEE predicted by DLW was also significantly higher during EXE versus SED (5422 ± 2240 kJ·day-1 and 3855 ± 2496 kJ·day-1). SWA-predicted PAEE significantly underestimated PAEE measured by the DLW during SED and EXE.
DLW is sensitive to detect variation in within-individual energy expenditure during voluntary increase in physical activity in individuals with SCI. SWA failed to detect statistically significant variations in energy expenditure between periods of high versus low activity in SCI.