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  • Author: James C. Ehrhardt x
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John W. Chow, Warren G. Darling and James C. Ehrhardt

The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum muscle stress (σ), defined as the maximum isometric force divided by the physiological cross-sectional area, of the quadriceps muscles for a pilot study involving musculoskeletal modeling. One female subject performed maximum effort isometric knee extension exercises on an isokinetic dynamometer at different attachment arm angles. The gravitational effect was taken into consideration when determining the isometric resultant knee torques at different knee flexion angles. The anatomical and geometric parameters of the quadriceps muscles were obtained from radiography and magnetic resonance imaging taken from the subject. The σ value was computed using me measured knee torques, musculoskeletal parameters data, and information reported in the literature. The computation procedures used in this study represented the first attempt to incorporate the concept of optimal muscle length in the determination of maximum muscle stress. The σ values obtained from the data for nine different knee flexion angles ranged from 21.4 to 30.5 N/cm2. The average value of 25.6 ± 2.6 N/cm2 is notably smaller than the human σ values reported in the literature, but is comparable to the σ values obtained from isolated muscles.

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John W. Chow, Warren G. Darling and James C. Ehrhardt

The purpose of this study was to determine the coordinates of the origin and insertion, muscle volumes, lengths, lines of action, and effective moment arm of the quadriceps muscles in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiography for a pilot study involving musculoskeletal modeling. Two magnetic resonance scans were performed, and axial images were obtained for the left thigh of a female subject in the anatomical position to measure muscle volume, coordinates of the origin and insertion, and muscle belly length at the anatomical position of each quadriceps muscle. Six knee radiographs were used to determine the effective moment arm of the quadriceps force at different knee flexion angles. A combination of MRI and radiography data was used to compute the muscle lengths at different knee flexion angles. The coordinates of the vastus lateralis, muscle volumes of individual quadriceps muscles, and effective moment arms were clearly different from the corresponding values from cadaver data reported in the literature. These comparisons demonstrate the advantages of using personalized muscle parameters instead of those collected from cadavers and dry-bone specimens.