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  • Author: James D. Taylor x
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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

Context : Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently used as a supplement by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a 1-mile (1609 m) race. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, and placebo-controlled design, 13 trained male runners completed a 1-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg−1 coffee (COF), 0.09 g·kg−1 decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or a placebo (PLA). All trials were dissolved in 300 mL of hot water. Results: The race completion time was 1.3% faster following the ingestion of COF (04:35.37 [00:10.51] min:s.ms) compared with DEC (04:39.14 [00:11.21] min:s.ms; P = .018; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.11 to −0.01; d = 0.32) and 1.9% faster compared with PLA (04:41.00 [00:09.57] min:s.ms; P = .006; 95% CI, −0.15 to −0.03; d = 0.51). A large trial and time interaction for salivary caffeine concentration was observed (P < .001; ηp2=.69), with a very large increase (6.40 [1.57] μg·mL−1; 95% CI, 5.5–7.3; d = 3.86) following the ingestion of COF. However, only a trivial difference between DEC and PLA was observed (P = .602; 95% CI, −0.09 to 0.03; d = 0.17). Furthermore, only trivial differences were observed for blood glucose (P = .839; ηp2=.02) and lactate (P = .096; ηp2=.18) and maximal heart rate (P = .286; ηp2=.13) between trials. Conclusions: The results of this study show that 60 minutes after ingesting 0.09 g·kg−1 of caffeinated coffee, 1-mile race performance was enhanced by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with placebo and decaffeinated coffee, respectively, in trained male runners.

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Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky and James D. Taylor

Testing balance and fall risk with older adults of varying abilities is of increasing importance. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the lower quarter Y-balance test (YBT-LQ) in older adults. A secondary aim was to provide estimates of reliability with this population. A total of 30 male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) subjects (66.8 ± 6.5 years) performed the YBT-LQ, 30-s chair stand test, 8-foot up and go test, timed up and go test, single-leg stance, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale questionnaire. The YBT-LQ was performed on two separate occasions by two investigators in random order. YBT-LQ was significantly correlated with age (p < .01), timed up and go test (p = .003), 8-foot up and go test (p < .001), 30-s chair stand test (p < .001), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (p = .002), and single-leg stance (p = .005) performance. The intraclass correlation coefficient(3,1) score for the reliability of the YBT-LQ was .95 (95% confidence interval [.89, .97]). The YBT-LQ appears to be a valid and reliable assessment to use with older adults.