Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for

  • Author: James Hill x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

James O. Hill and Reneé Commerford

In this paper, we review the impact of physical activity on energy and maeronutrient balances. Stability of body weight and body composition depends on reaching a steady-state where the amount and composition of energy ingested are equal to the amount and composition of energy expended. We describe how a person's level of physical activity can have a significant impact on determining the level of body weight and body fatness at which that steady-state is reached. First, physical activity can directly affect both total energy intake and total energy expenditure. Physical activity can also affect fat balance, and it is becoming clear that imbalances in total energy are largely imbalances in fat. High levels of physical activity should help individuals reach fat and energy balances at lower levels of body fatness than would have been achieved at lower levels of physical activity.

Restricted access

Kristen Holm, Holly Wyatt, James Murphy, James Hill and Lorraine Odgen

Background:

This study examined the association between parent and child change in physical activity during a family-based intervention for child weight gain prevention.

Methods:

Daily step counts were recorded for parents and children in 83 families given a goal to increase activity by 2000 steps per day above baseline. Linear mixed effects models were used to predict child change in daily step counts from parental change in step counts.

Results:

Both maternal (P < .0001) and paternal (P < .0001) change in step counts for the current day strongly predicted child change in step counts for that day. On average, a child took an additional 2117.6 steps above baseline on days his or her mother met her goal versus 1175.2 additional steps when the mother did not meet her goal. The respective values were 1598.0 versus 1123.1 steps for fathers. Day of week moderated the maternal effect (P = .0019), with a larger impact on Saturday and Sunday compared with weekdays. A similar but nonsignificant pattern was observed for fathers.

Conclusions:

Encouraging parents to increase physical activity, particularly on weekends, may be a highly effective way to leverage parental involvement in interventions to increase children’s physical activity.

Restricted access

James E. Johnson, T.J. Herniak, Kelly Kwiatkowski and Amy Hill

Child protective services is a broad category that impacts a variety of organizations who work directly with children. Youth sport and recreation organizations, as well as universities who have youth services, are uniquely positioned for increased risk from coaches, counselors, volunteers, or administrators who have regular access to youth via their roles as trusted leaders. Sport management graduates often find themselves in these positions, or supervising individuals who hold these positions. With this premise in mind, it is essential that sport management students are exposed to the concept of child protection, and understand the potential ramifications if child protective measures are not followed. This case describes an incident occurring at a university kid’s camp where student employees serve as counselors. The incident places one counselor in a precarious situation, and forces his supervisor into some difficult decisions. The case allows students to evaluate the situation from an assortment of sport management perspectives including governance/policy considerations, legal ramifications, organizational theory, or ethical decision-making. Discussion questions encourage students to confront these perspectives and consider the role of child protection from a variety of vantage points (e.g., counselor, parent, administrator).

Full access

Cheryl Carnoske, Christine Hoehner, Nicholas Ruthmann, Lawrence Frank, Susan Handy, James Hill, Sherry Ryan, James Sallis, Karen Glanz and Ross Brownson

Background:

Although public support for physical activity-friendly Traditional Neighborhood Developments (TNDs) appears to be growing, information is lacking on private sector perspectives and how economic factors (eg, fuel prices) might influence the development and sale of TNDs.

Methods:

A sample of realtors from the National Association of Realtors (n = 4950) and developers from the National Association of Home Builders (n = 162) were surveyed in early 2009 to assess factors influencing homebuyers' decisions; incentives and barriers to developing TNDs; effects of depressed housing market conditions and financing on sales; trends in buying; and energy considerations (eg, green building).

Results:

Realtors believed that homebuyers continue to rank affordability, safety and school quality higher than TND amenities. Developers reported numerous barriers to TNDs, including the inability to overcome governmental/political hurdles, lack of cooperation between government agencies, and lack of market demand. Yet, realtors believed clients are increasingly influenced by gas and oil prices, and developers reported that clients are looking for energy efficient homes, reduced commute time, and walkable neighborhoods. Respondents reported consumers are more interested in living in a TND than 5 years ago.

Conclusions:

Activity-friendly TNDs appear to be increasing in demand, but developers and realtors reported significant barriers to creating these communities.

Restricted access

Michael R. McCarthy, Barton P. Buxton, W. Douglas B. Hiller, James R. Doyle and Denis Yamada

In an attempt to quantify the current standards in surgical procedures and rehabilitation protocols utilized to treat patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees, a 19-question survey was sent to members of the Hawaii Orthopedic Association. The findings indicated that only 54% (30/56) of the respondents were performing ACL reconstructions, of which 87% (26/30) were performing an intra-articular procedure and none were performing extra-articular procedures exclusively. The findings further indicate that 80% (24/30) of the 30 respondents performing ACL reconstructions were using an arthroscopically assisted, bone-tendon-bone autograft procedure. However, in marked contrast to the uniformity that existed concerning the surgical procedure, there was a drastic difference in the rehabilitation protocols and procedures that were recommended postoperatively. The most apparent differences in rehabilitation protocols existed in the utilization and initiation of open versus closed type kinetic chain exercises and activities.

Restricted access

Nanette Stroebele, Holly R. Wyatt, George W. Reed, John C. Peters and James O. Hill

Background:

Results from a statewide telephone survey of walking showed that the average adult in Colorado takes 6804 steps/d, and that steps/d were negatively associated with body mass index. No similar data exist for children.

Methods:

As part of the Colorado survey, demographic information was obtained from parents for 116 children. A subsample of 59 children and adolescents (age 10 to 17 y) agreed to wear a step counter for four consecutive days.

Results:

The youth reported taking an average of 7902 steps/d. There was a trend for children’s steps/d to be positively associated with parents’ steps/d and negatively associated with TV watching.

Conclusion:

This sample of children is not large enough to be considered a representative sample of Colorado youth, but this cross-sectional study provides some much needed information about steps/d in children and generates some interesting hypotheses about steps/d and other measures of health and overweight.

Restricted access

Victoria Catenacci, Christopher Barrett, Lorraine Odgen, Ray Browning, Christine Adele Schaefer, James Hill and Holly Wyatt

Background:

The America on the Move (AOM) Family Intervention Program has been shown to prevent excess weight gain in overweight children. Providing intervention materials via the internet would have the potential to reach more families but may increase sedentary behavior. The purpose was to evaluate whether delivering the AOM Family Intervention via the internet versus printed workbook would have a similar impact on sedentary behaviors in children.

Methods:

131 children (age 8–12) were randomized to receive the AOM Family Intervention via the internet or workbook for 12 weeks. Changes in objectively measured sedentary time and moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as well as self-reported screen time were compared between groups.

Results:

There were no significant differences between groups in screen time, sedentary time, or MVPA at the end of the 12 week intervention. Families receiving the intervention via the internet were more likely to remain in the study (98% vs. 82%, P = .016).

Conclusions:

Using the internet to deliver the lifestyle intervention did not increase sedentary behavior in children. Attrition rates were lower when the program was delivered by internet versus via printed materials. These results provide support for using the internet to deliver healthy lifestyle programs for children.

Restricted access

Victoria Anne Catenacci, Lorraine Odgen, Suzanne Phelan, J. Graham Thomas, James Hill, Rena R. Wing and Holly Wyatt

Background:

The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) was established to examine characteristics of successful weight loss maintainers. This study compares the diet and behavioral characteristics and weight regain trajectories of NWCR members with differing physical activity (PA) levels at baseline.

Methods:

Participants (n = 3591) were divided into 4 levels of self-reported PA at registry entry (< 1000, 1000 to < 2250, 2250 to < 3500, and ≥ 3500 kcals/week). We compared self-reported energy intake (EI), macronutrient composition, eating behaviors (dietary restraint, hunger, and disinhibition), weight loss maintenance strategies, and 3 year weight regain between these 4 activity groups.

Results:

Those with the highest PA at registry entry had lost the most weight, and reported lower fat intake, more dietary restraint, and greater reliance on several specific dietary strategies to maintain weight loss. Those in the lowest PA category maintained weight loss despite low levels of PA and without greater reliance on dietary strategies. There were no differences in odds of weight regain at year 3 between PA groups.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that there is not a “one size fits all strategy” for successful weight loss maintenance and that weight loss maintenance may require the use of more strategies by some individuals than others.

Restricted access

Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald and James O. Hill

Background:

This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.

Methods:

The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.

Results:

The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.

Conclusion:

The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.

Restricted access

Holly R. Wyatt, John C. Peters, George W. Reed, Gary K. Grunwald, Mary Barry, Helen Thompson, Joanie Jones and James O. Hill

Background:

Obesity is an epidemic in the United States, yet few programs have been implemented on a widespread basis to deal with it. Colorado on the Move is a state-wide program with a specific quantifiable behavioral goal for increasing lifestyle physical activity (i.e. walking) and decreasing energy intake to prevent weight gain.

Methods:

A nonrandomized intervention trial designed to increase walking by 2000 steps/d using electronic step counters.

Results:

The intervention was effective in increasing average steps/d by at least 2000 over a 14-wk period.

Conclusion:

The Colorado on the Move intervention was effective in significantly increasing physical activity over a 14-wk period. Steps/d appears to be a good target for use in interventions to increase physical activity. Simply increasing physical activity in the population by 2000 steps/d could help in preventing the average yearly increase in body weight seen in the US population.