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David Pierce and James Johnson

Holland’s vocational choice theory is used in vocational counseling to aid job seekers in finding occupations that fit their personality based on Holland’s RIASEC typology of personalities and work environments. The purpose of this research was to determine the Holland RIASEC profiles for occupations within the sport industry by having employees in intercollegiate athletics complete the Position Classification Inventory. Results indicated that the three-letter Holland code for the sport industry is SEC. The sport industry is dominated by the Social environment, evidenced by seven occupations possessing Social in the first letter of the profile and Social rating in the top two letters for all occupations. Seven occupations were primarily Social, three were Realistic, two were Enterprising, and two were Conventional. A multivariate analysis of variance was also conducted to compare differences between occupational disciplines on the six Holland environments. Implications for sport industry occupations and the application of Holland’s theory are discussed.

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James E. Johnson, T.J. Herniak, Kelly Kwiatkowski and Amy Hill

Child protective services is a broad category that impacts a variety of organizations who work directly with children. Youth sport and recreation organizations, as well as universities who have youth services, are uniquely positioned for increased risk from coaches, counselors, volunteers, or administrators who have regular access to youth via their roles as trusted leaders. Sport management graduates often find themselves in these positions, or supervising individuals who hold these positions. With this premise in mind, it is essential that sport management students are exposed to the concept of child protection, and understand the potential ramifications if child protective measures are not followed. This case describes an incident occurring at a university kid’s camp where student employees serve as counselors. The incident places one counselor in a precarious situation, and forces his supervisor into some difficult decisions. The case allows students to evaluate the situation from an assortment of sport management perspectives including governance/policy considerations, legal ramifications, organizational theory, or ethical decision-making. Discussion questions encourage students to confront these perspectives and consider the role of child protection from a variety of vantage points (e.g., counselor, parent, administrator).

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James E. Johnson, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis and Beau F. Scott

While competitive balance literature is robust when addressing professional sport from an economic perspective, little empirical work has focused on understanding what shapes interscholastic competitive balance policies. Using the theory of distributive justice as a framework, the purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the perceptions of top administrators regarding sociocultural influences on interscholastic competitive balance. Qualitative interview data collected from six state commissioners/executive directors revealed four predominant findings: (a) policy is driven by a philosophical approach that is aligned with the theory of distributive justice; (b) an overemphasis on winning strongly influences policy; (c) political influence through legal threats and state educational policy shapes committee decisions; and (d) the prevailing challenges of policy creation include school size, geography, public/nonpublic status, tradition, sport-specific characteristics, and lack of knowledge. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King and James A. Johnson

The anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL) of the elbow is commonly injured in patients with elbow dislocations and in throwing athletes. This in-vitro study quantified tension in the native AMCL throughout elbow flexion for different arm positions. We conducted passive and simulated active elbow flexion in seven fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremities using an established motion simulator. Motions were performed in the valgus and vertical positions from 20–120° while measuring AMCL tension using a custom transducer. Average AMCL tension was higher in the valgus compared to vertical position for both active (p = 0.03) and passive (p = 0.01) motion. Peak AMCL tension was higher in the valgus position for active (p = 0.02) and passive (p = 0.01) motion. There was no significant difference in AMCL tension between active and passive motion in the valgus (p = 0.15) or vertical (p = 0.39) positions. In the valgus position, tension increased with elbow flexion from 20–70° for both active (p = 0.04) and passive (p = 0.02) motion, but not from 70–120°. This in-vitro study demonstrated that AMCL tension increases with elbow flexion, and is greater in the valgus position relative to the vertical position. This information has important implications to the desired target strength of repair and reconstruction techniques.

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James E. Johnson, Lawrence W. Judge and Elizabeth Wanless

Incorporating a national competition with the traditional case teaching method offers a unique and intense learning experience beyond what can be achieved in a typical classroom format. This paper discusses a graduate Sport Administration experience from preparation to presentation for students and faculty in the case study competition annually sponsored by the College Sport Research Institute (CSRI). Included is a thorough review of the case method highlighting what to expect from adopting this alternative teaching technique. The role of the faculty advisor is explained from both a theoretical and functional perspective with particular attention given to advising in a competition format. Student learning experiences were assessed using open-ended survey questions designed to encourage student reflection. Although students reported an immense time commitment, they were overwhelmingly satisfied with their competition experience that included in-depth learning, essential skill building, and real-world application.

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Amy Warren, Erin J. Howden, Andrew D. Williams, James W. Fell and Nathan A. Johnson

Postexercise fat oxidation may be important for exercise prescription aimed at optimizing fat loss. The authors examined the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality on postexercise oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate selection/respiratory-exchange ratio (RER) in healthy individuals. Three experiments (n = 7 for each) compared (a) short- (SD) vs. long-duration (LD) ergometer cycling exercise (30 min vs. 90 min) matched for intensity, (b) low- (LI) vs. high-intensity (HI) cycling (50% vs. 85% of VO2max) matched for energy expenditure, and (c) continuous (CON) vs. interval (INT) cycling matched for energy expenditure and mean intensity. All experiments were administered by crossover design. Altering exercise duration did not affect postexercise VO2 or RER kinetics (p > .05). However, RER was lower and fat oxidation was higher during the postexercise period in LD vs. SD (p < .05). HI vs. LI resulted in a significant increase in total postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation (p < .01). Altering exercise modality (CON vs. INT) did not affect postexercise VO2, RER, or fat oxidation (p > .05). These results demonstrate that postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation can be augmented by increasing exercise intensity, but these benefits cannot be exploited by undertaking interval exercise (1:2-min work:recovery ratio) when total energy expenditure, duration, and mean intensity remain unchanged. In spite of the apparent benefit of these strategies, the amount of fat oxidized after exercise may be inconsequential compared with that oxidized during the exercise bout.

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Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green and Eric Kyle O’Neal

Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200 ± 300 ml of sweat loss (3.1 ± 0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/postbreakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 ml (low; L), 2,065/2,593 ml (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H). Voids were collected in separate containers. Increased urine output resulted in no differences (p > .05) in absolute mean fluid retention for waking or first postbreakfast voids. Night void averages excluding the first void postrun (1.025 ± 0.008; 1.013 ± 0.008; 1.006 ± 0.003), first morning (1.024 ± 0.004; 1.015 ± 0.005; 1.014 ± 0.005), and postbreakfast (1.022 ± 0.007; 1.014 ± 0.007; 1.008 ± 0.003) USG were higher (p < .05) for L versus M and H respectively and more clearly differentiated fluid intake volume between L and M than color or thirst sensation. Waking (r = -0.66) and postbreakfast (r = -0.71) USG were both significantly correlated (p < .001) with fluid replacement percentage, but not absolute fluid retention. Fluid intake M was reported as most similar to normal consumption (5.6 ± 1.0 on 0–10 scale) after breakfast and equaled 122 ± 16% of sweat losses. Retention data suggests consumption above this level is not warranted or actually practiced by most runners drinking ad libitum, but that periodic prerun USG assessment may be useful for coaches to detect runners that habitually consume low levels of fluids between training bouts in warm seasons.

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Matthew D. Mecham, Richard M. Greenwald, James G. Macintyre and Stephen C. Johnson

A field study was performed using freestyle aerial ski jumpers to determine the incidence of head impact (slapback) and to record head acceleration data during slapback episodes for the 1994–1995 and 1995–1996 winter seasons. A total of 382 slapbacks were recorded from 2,352 jumps for an observed slapback incidence of 16.2%. Head acceleration data were recorded for 5 slapback events. Maximum head acceleration magnitudes for the 5 impacts ranged from 27 to 92 gs and impact durations ranged from 12 to 96 μsec. Standard severity indices including the Gadd Severity Index and Head Injury Criteria were calculated from the resultant acceleration signal and ranged from 57 to 223, and 21 to 159, respectively, which are considered low in terms of life threatening injury levels.

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Elizabeth A. Wanless, Ryan M. Brewer, James E. Johnson and Lawrence W. Judge

To prepare students for employment in sport, many sport management programs involve students in revenue generation activities, such as ticket or sponsorship sales. Literature evaluating student perceptions of this specific type of experiential learning remains sparse. This constructivist qualitative study evaluated student perceptions of learning from two courses containing experiential revenue generation projects. Data were gathered via structured-question electronic survey. Fifty-one of 60 students participated. Results generally supported previous research conclusions; conducting experiential learning projects increases skill and professional development and offers a realistic career preview but demands significant time commitment. Important contradictions, however, were present in comparison with past literature. The unique nature of sales-based projects involving students in ticket sales and sponsorship sales served as a platform for students to develop critically important interpersonal skills. This benefit was not identified in studies evaluating experiential learning opportunities that did not contain a sales-based component.

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Michael R. Richardson, Tammie M. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Earl S. Ford, William R. Boyer and James R. Churilla


Few studies have examined the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA).


The sample (n = 7533) included U.S. adult (≥20 years of age).participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Created categories of MSA participation included no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L).


Analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.44–0.93, P = .0191). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88, P = .0019). Following adjustment for waist circumference (WC) these odds remained significant in men but not women.


These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women.