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  • Author: James M. Smoliga x
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Sara L. Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M. Smoliga and Kevin R. Ford

Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva1 with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and (2) examine the effects of these BSIP estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division I soccer players were recruited. BSIPs of the shank and thigh (mass, COM location, and radius of gyration) were determined using de Leva’s method and analysis of whole-body DXA scans. These estimates were used to determine peak knee joint moments and power during the DVJ. Compared with DXA, de Leva’s method located the COM more distally in the shank (P = .008) and more proximally in the thigh (P < .001), and the radius of gyration of the thigh to be further from the thigh COM (P < .001). All knee joint moment and power measures were similar between methods. These findings suggest that BSIP estimation may vary between methods, but the impact on joint moment calculations during a dynamic task is negligible.

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Jeffrey B. Taylor, Alexis A. Wright, James M. Smoliga, J. Tyler DePew and Eric J. Hegedus

Context:

Physical-performance tests (PPTs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and injury-prevention settings, yet normative values of upper-extremity PPTs have not been established in high-level athletes.

Objective:

To establish normative data values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) and Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT) in college athletes and compare results between sports and to analyze the relationship between the 2 tests.

Design:

Observational.

Setting:

Laboratory/athletic facility.

Participants:

257 (118 male, 139 female) Division I athletes participating in basketball, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, volleyball, track and field, and cross-country.

Intervention:

CKCUEST and UQYBT scores were recorded as part of a comprehensive injury-risk screening battery.

Main Outcome Measure:

Pearson correlations assessed the relationship between all measures of the CKCUEST and UQYBT. A factorial ANOVA and a repeated-measures ANOVA (arm dominance) were used to assess interactions between sex, year in school, and sport for CKCUEST and UQYBT scores.

Results:

Normative values for the CKCUEST and UQYBT were established for 9 men’s and women’s college sports. No significant relationships were found between PPT scores. Men scored significantly higher than women for the CKCUEST (P = .002) and UQYBT (P = .010). Baseball players scored significantly higher than athletes from all other sports for the UQYBT (P < .001) but showed nonsignificant trends of lower scores for the CKCUEST than lower-extremity-dominant athletes such as runners (P = .063) and lacrosse players (P = .058).

Conclusions:

Results suggest that average CKCUEST and UQYBT scores in Division I athletes are distinct from those previously reported in recreationally active populations and that performance differences exist between sexes and sports. In addition, the CKCUEST and UQYBT appear to measure different constructs of performance and may complement each other as part of a screening battery.