Most studies of high-speed lower body movements include practice repetitions for facilitating consistency between the trials. We investigated whether 20 repetitions of drop landing (from a 30.5-cm platform onto a force plate) could improve consistency in maximum ground reaction force, linear lower body stiffness, depth of landing, and jump height in 20 healthy, young adults. Coefficient of variation was the construct for variability used to compare the first to the last five repetitions for each variable. We found that the practice had the greatest effect on maximum ground reaction force (p = .017), and had smaller and similar effects on lower body stiffness and depth of landing (p values = .074 and .044, respectively), and no measurable effect on jump height. These findings suggest that the effect of practice on drop landing differs depending upon the variable measure and that 20 repetitions significantly improve consistency in ground reaction force.
James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis
Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang, James McFarland, Jason M. Bloom, James Magnatta, Nicholas A. Ratamess and Jay R. Hoffman
Although pre-event static stretching (SS) is an accepted practice in most youth programs, pre-event dynamic exercise (DY) is becoming popular. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre-event SS, DY, and combined SS and DY (SDY) on vertical jump (VJ), medicine-ball toss (MB), 10-yard sprint (SP), and pro-agility shuttle run (AG) in teenage athletes (15.5 ± 0.9 years). Thirty athletes participated in three testing sessions in random order on three nonconsecutive days. Before testing, participants performed 5 min of walking/jogging followed by one of the following 10 min warm-up protocols: a) five static stretches (2 × 30 s), b) nine moderate-to-high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 10 yards), or c) five static stretches (1 × 30 s) followed by the same nine dynamic movements (1 × 10 yards). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that performance on the VJ, MB, and SP were significantly (p < .05) improved after DY and SDY as compared with SS. There were no significant differences in AG after the 3 warm-up treatments. The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise or static stretching followed by dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than pre-event static stretching alone in teenage athletes who perform power activities.
Avery D. Faigenbaum, James E. McFarland, Neil A. Kelly, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jie Kang and Jay R. Hoffman
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of recovery time following a dynamic warm-up (DY) and a static stretch warm-up (SS) on power performance in adolescent athletes. Following baseline measures, 19 males (16.5 ± 1.1 yrs) performed the vertical jump (VJ) and seated medicine ball toss (MB) at the following time points after DY and SS: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 min. Analysis of variance revealed that VJ was significantly greater following DY than SS at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 min. Main effects indicated a significant increase in VJ from baseline at 2 and 6 min following DY (2.6–3.9%) and a significant decrease in VJ from baseline at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 min following SS (–3.2% to –7.0%). No significant interaction effects between DY and SS were observed for MB. These findings indicate that lower body power performance in male adolescent athletes can be enhanced following DY as compared with SS during the first 18 min of the post warm-up period.