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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

We investigated physical activity (PA) correlates among middle-aged and older adults (aged ≥50 years) with hazardous drinking patterns in six low- and middle-income countries. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the World Health Organization’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Hazardous drinking was defined as consuming >7 (females) or >14 (males) standard drinks per week. Participants were dichotomized into low (i.e., not meeting 150 min of moderate PA/week) and moderate–high physically active groups. Associations between PA and a range of correlates were examined using multivariable logistic regressions. The prevalence of low PA in 1,835 hazardous drinkers (60.5 ± 13.1 years; 87.9% males) was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [13.9%, 18.9%]). Older age, living in an urban setting, being unemployed, depression, underweight, obesity, asthma, visual impairment, poor self-rated health, and higher levels of disability were identified as significant PA correlates. The current data provide important guidance for future interventions to assist older hazardous drinkers to engage in regular PA.

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha

Background: This study investigated whether reported neighborhood variables explained variance in time spent walking, exercising, and being sedentary, in addition to mental health and demographic variables among Ugandan outpatients with mental illness. Methods: Ninety-nine outpatients (78 men; 31.1 [8.6] y) of the Butabika National Referral Hospital in Uganda completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa, the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Seven percent of the variance in walking time was explained by the variance in anxiety/depression and an additional 13% by the variance in perceived mixed land use and the availability of roads and walking paths. Eight percent of the variance in exercise time was explained by variance in age and an additional 6% by the variance anxiety/depression. The availability of recreational space added 8%. Six percent of variance in time spent sedentary was explained by family income, while availability of roads and walking paths added another 6%. Conclusions: This study shows the relevance of availability of roads and walking paths and recreational space for more physical activity and less sedentary behavior in people with mental illness. This is particularly relevant in low-income countries where a rapid urbanization is taking place.