Although qualitative research approaches such as ethnography have been applied to the field of sport (e.g., Bricknell, 2001; Hughson and Hallinan, 2001) Sparkes (2003) has suggested that it was not until the late 1990s that sport researchers began to embrace ethnographic frameworks underpinned by critical and postmodern theories. As such, the value of these research designs has not been fully realized. The benefit for sport management researchers in applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches is that it sharpens their critical consciousness. This article therefore develops an argument for applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches to sport management research. In doing this we (a) provide a brief historical sketch of social science research paradigms; (b) outline the benefits of applying critical and postmodern thought to sport management ethnographic research; (c) present examples of current sport and sport management ethnographic research that applies critical and postmodern frameworks; and (d) provide insight into the concerns that sport management scholars should consider when applying ethnographic research designs that embrace the tenets of postmodernism. Through this discussion we conclude that, although ethnographic approaches inspired by critical and postmodern thought are not the panacea to solve all research problems, if applied correctly they can only further enhance out knowledge of the research issue under investigation.
James Skinner and Allan Edwards
Lesley Ferkins, James Skinner and Steve Swanson
Brooke Elizabeth Harris-Reeves, James Skinner, Peter Milburn and Greg Reddan
Sport coaching is a multifaceted profession with many responsibilities. Coaches can have a profound effect on athletes that can be both positive and negative. Coaches have the ability to motivate athletes and increase their self-esteem. Conversely, negative effects of coaching may include athlete drop-outs, injuries, and loss of confidence. Coaches need to manage the coaching environment and create positive surroundings to ensure that athletes achieve their optimum potential. Managing a coaching environment refers to how coaches establish and maintain order. This paper explores the literature on behavior management in education and sport settings and aims to contribute to sport-coaching knowledge. General coaching tips for managing athlete behavior are suggested along with examples of potential coaching strategies.
Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner
In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.
Terry Engelberg, Dwight H. Zakus, James L. Skinner and Alastair Campbell
The organizational commitment of volunteers has been recognized as essential for the effective management of community-based sport. Despite this, little is known about the nature of sport volunteer commitment and, more specifically, its dimensionality and targets. This study developed measures of sport volunteer commitment within a framework of multiple dimensions of commitment and multiple targets of commitment to three organizational targets in the sport volunteering setting: the organization (in this context, the athletic center), the volunteer work team, and the volunteer role. Drawing on Meyer and Herscovitch’s (2001) general commitment model, we adapted measures from previous work of Engelberg, Skinner, and Zakus (2006) of commitment to each of these targets and tested the proposed model using partial least squares regression (PLS) modeling. Results provided support for a two-dimensional model within and across each of the targets, and also showed that the measures had adequate discriminant validity and reliability. Implications for research on volunteer commitment in sport organizations are discussed.
Janice Thompson, Melinda M. Manore and James S. Skinner
The resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermic effect of a meal (TEM) were determined in 13 low-energy intake (LOW) and 11 adequate-energy intake (ADQ) male endurance athletes. The LOW athletes reported eating 1,490 kcal·day-1 less than the ADQ group, while the activity level of both groups was similar. Despite these differences, both groups had a similar fat-free mass (FFM) and had been weight stable for at least 2 years. The RMR was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the LOW group compared to the values of the ADQ group (1.19 vs. 1.29 kcal·FFM-1·hr-l, respectively); this difference represents a lower resting expenditure of 158 kcal·day-1. No differences were found in TEM between the two groups. These results suggest that a lower RMR is one mechanism that contributes to weight maintenance in a group of low- versus adequate-energy intake male athletes.
Christine A. Dueck, Kathleen S. Matt, Melinda M. Manore and James S. Skinner
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 15-week diet and exercise intervention program on energy balance, hormonal profiles, body composition, and menstrual function of an amenorrheic endurance athlete. The intervention program reduced training 1 day/week and included the use of a sport nutrition beverage providing 360 kcal/day. Three eumenorrheic athletes served as a comparison group and were monitored over the same 15-week period. The amenorrheic athlete experienced a transition from negative to positive energy balance, increased body fat from 8.2 to 14.4%, increased fasting luteinizing hormone (LH) from 3.9 to 7.3 mlU/ml, and decreased fasting cortisol from 41.2 to 33.2 pg/dl. The eumenorrheic subjects showed a 0.4% reduction in body fat, a decrease in follicular phase levels of LH from 7.9 to 6.5 mlU/ml, and no change in cortisol. These results suggest that nonpharmacological treatment can contribute to reestablishing normal hormonal profiles and menstrual cyclicity in amenorrheic athletes.
Sheila A. Kopp-Woodroffe, Melinda M. Manore, Christine A. Dueck, James S. Skinner and Kathleen S. Matt
Chronic energy deficit is one of the strongest factors contributing to exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction. In such cases, macro- and micronutrient intakes may also be low. This study presents the results of a diet and exercise training intervention program, designed to reverse athletic amenorrhea, on improving energy balance and nutritional status in 4 amenorrheic athletes. The 20-week program provided a daily sport nutrition supplement and 1 day of rest/week. The intervention improved self-reported energy intake (El) and balance in all participants. The program increased protein intakes for the 3 athletes with a protein deficit to within the recommended levels for active individuals. Micronutrient intakes increased, as did serum concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin. These results indicate that some amenorrheic athletes have poor nutritional status due to restricted Els and poor food selections. A sport nutrition supplement may improve energy balance and nutritional status in active amenorrheic women.
Derek T. Smith, Stacey Judge, Ashley Malone, Rebecca C. Moynes, Jason Conviser and James S. Skinner
Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22–51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.
Jon Billsberry, Jacqueline Mueller, James Skinner, Steve Swanson, Ben Corbett and Lesley Ferkins
Conventional approaches to leadership in sport management regard leadership as a leader-centric phenomenon. Recent advances in the generic leadership literature have highlighted the way that people construct their own understanding of leadership and shown that these influence their assessment and responses to people they regard as leaders. This observer-centric perspective is collectively known as the social construction of leadership. In this conceptual paper, we demonstrate how this emerging theoretical approach can reframe and invigorate our understanding of leadership in sport management. We explore the research implications of this new approach, reflect on what this might mean for teaching, and discuss the practical ramifications for leadership in sport management that might flow from the adoption of this approach.