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Cheryl Cooky, Brenda A. Riemer, James Steele and Bea Vidacs

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Matheus Barbalho, Victor S. Coswig, James Steele, James P. Fisher, Jurgen Giessing and Paulo Gentil

This article has been retracted at the request of the authors on April 16, 2020. They performed an a posteriori analysis of the data and identified inconsistencies that changed their evaluation of the results. The authors apologize for the inconvenience.

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Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Rebecca Conway, Matthew Wade, Alex Lucas, Michelle Jones, Steve Mann and James Steele

Background: Physical activity (PA) promotes health and well-being. For students, university represents a transitional period, including increased independence over lifestyle behaviors, in addition to new stressors and barriers to engaging in PA. It is, therefore, important to monitor PA trends in students to gain a greater understanding about the role it might play in physical and mental well-being, as well as other factors, such as attainment and employability. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2016 in Scottish universities and colleges, and in 2017 in universities and colleges across the United Kingdom, and the data were pooled for the present study (N = 11,650). Cumulative ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between PA levels and mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability. Results: Only 51% of the respondents met the recommended levels of moderate to vigorous PA per week. There was a linear relationship between PA levels and all outcomes, with better scores in more active students. Conclusions: UK university students are insufficiently active compared with the general population of 16- to 24-year olds. Yet, students with higher PA report better outcomes for mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability.

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Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert James Copeland, Steve Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton and Alfonso Jimenez

Objectives: To examine if exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are associated with meaningful changes in physical activity in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland, and Wales from The National Referral Database. Methods: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different ERSs, lasting 6–12 weeks. The preexercise referral scheme and changes from the preexercise to the postexercise referral scheme in self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores were examined. A 2-stage individual patient data meta-analysis was used to generate the effect estimates. Results: For the pre-ERS metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, the estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 676 MET minutes per week (539 to 812). For the change in MET minutes per week, the estimate (95% CI) was an increase of 540 MET minutes per week (396 to 684). Changes in the total PA levels occurred as a result of increases in vigorous activity of 17 minutes (95% CI, 9 to 24), increases in moderate activity of 29 minutes (95% CI, 22 to 36), and reductions in sitting of −61 minutes (95% CI, −78 to −43), though little change in walking (−5 min; 95% CI, −14 to 5) was found. Conclusions: Most participants undergoing ERSs are already “moderately active.” Changes in PA behavior associated with participation are through increased moderate to vigorous PA and reduced sitting. However, this was insufficient to change the International Physical Activity Questionnaire category, and the participants were still “moderately active.”

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James R. Forsyth, Ryan de la Harpe, Diane L. Riddiford-Harland, John W. Whitting and Julie R. Steele


To investigate the influence of turns, tube rides, and aerial maneuvers on the scores awarded in elite men’s professional surfing competitions. The successful completion rate and scores associated with different aerial variations were also investigated.


Video recordings from all 11 events of the 2015 World Surf League men’s world championship tour were viewed to classify maneuvers performed by the competitors on each wave as turns, tube rides, and aerials. A 2-way ANOVA was used to determine any main effect or interaction of maneuver type or event location on the wave scores. A 1-way ANOVA was used to determine any main effect of aerial type on successful completion rate.


Aerial maneuvers were scored significantly higher than tube rides and turns. A significant main effect existed for maneuver and completion rate. Aerial maneuvers had the lowest completion rate, 45.4%. During the finals series (quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals heats) aerial-maneuver completion rate was higher, 55.4%. The frontside air reverse was the most commonly performed maneuver and received an average score of 6.77 out of 10.


Professional surfers can optimize their potential single-wave scores during competition by successfully completing aerial maneuvers. However, aerial maneuvers continue to be a high-risk maneuver with a significantly lower completion rate. Our findings suggest that surfers should aim to improve their aerial-maneuver completion rate via surf practice or land-based training drills.