This paper provides a critical decoding of advertisements in Flex, a popular bodybuilding magazine. The analysis focuses on the visual and narrative representation of the muscular male body and bodywork practices in advertisements promoting bodybuilding technologies. The images of the muscular body found in bodybuilding advertisements encourage masculine self-transformation through bodywork. Moreover, the taken-for-granted representation of the muscular body as natural and desirable is rooted in an ideology of gender difference, championing dominant meanings of masculinity through a literal embodiment of patriarchal power. The foregrounding of the muscular body as a cultural ideal offers conservative resistance to progressive change and alternative masculinities by valorizing a dominance-based notion of masculinity.
Philip G. White and James Gillett
James E. Curtis and Philip G. White
The SSJ has recently published commentaries by Laberge and Girardin (1992) and McAll (1992), on our analyses of sport practices among Anglophone and Francophone Canadians, that obscure more than they clarify. The comments contain problems of misunderstanding and misrepresentations and put forward a nonviable theoretical interpretation of Francophone/Anglophone differences in leisure sport participation. They also recommend a problematic research strategy for the area of study. We briefly spell out some of the problems involved in the two sets of comments. We also present additional data for the late 1980s that further call into question the commentators’ interpretation.
James Curtis, Philip White and Barry McPherson
This study reports on age-group differences in leisure-time sport and physical activity involvement among a large sample of Canadians interviewed at 2 points during the 1980s. Comparisons are made for 5 age cohorts, for men and women, and without and with multivariate controls. The results contradict the usual finding of an inverse relationship between age and level of physical activity. On measures of (a) activity necessary to produce health benefits and (b) energy expenditure. Canadians over 65 were as active as, or more active than, their younger counterparts, and their activities did not decline over the 7 years between interviews. The extent of change varied by age and across women and men. Among women, increases in involvement were greatest in the middle-aged. Among men, the greatest increase was in the oldest age groups. For both genders, the youngest age cohort showed the smallest change over time, and there was evidence of slight declines in activity levels among young men.
Philip G. White and James E. Curtis
Multivariate analyses are presented showing, for the mid-1970s, the comparative propensities of Canadian anglophones and francophones to participate in forms of competitive sport and sport outside the family. Presented are data consistent with the values-differences perspective, which holds that there are differences in orientation toward achievement and the family across the Canadian linguistic groups. The analyses focus on a test of a specification of the values-differences thesis—the school-socialization interpretation, which holds that sport involvement patterns result in part because of differences in how competitive sport is organized in the schools in French Canada versus English Canada. It was found that differences in competitive sport participation were smaller after controls for respondents’ experience with sport during the school years. However, there remained significant francophone/anglophone differences in orientation to competitive and extra-family sport after controls for the effects of school experience and other social background factors.
James Curtis, William McTeer and Philip White
This paper reports on tests of relationships between participation in organized sport as a youth and earned income in adulthood. The data are drawn from a sample survey of adult Canadians. The results, both before and after appropriate controls, show that those who participated in organized sport as a youth tended to have higher annual earned incomes as adults than those who did not participate in this way. The relationships are stronger and more consistent for males than females across social subgroups defined by education level completed. Further supplemental analyses compare the explanatory import of youth sport participation and other forms of voluntary community involvement as a youth. Also presented are interpretations of the results, which emphasize the “cultural and social capital” and “physical capital” outcomes of involvement in youth sport activity.
James Curtis, William McTeer and Philip White
This paper presents findings on the relationship between high school sport participation and involvement in sport as adults. The data are provided by a survey of a large representative national sample of adult Canadians. For different age subgroups among women and men, we tested the school sport experiences hypothesis that sport involvement during the high school years contributes to later adult involvement in sport. The measurement of sport involvement in the high school years is concerned with intramural and inter-school activities. Adult sport activity has three measures: sport involvement per se, involvement in an organized setting, and competitive involvement. The results are consistent with the school experiences hypothesis. High school sport involvement, for inter-school sport activities, is a comparatively strong predictor of adult sport involvement. The effects of high school involvement persist after controlling for correlated social background factors. Moreover, the effects of school sport experiences hold across age and gender subgroups. Although diminished with temporal distance from the high school years, the effects of high school involvement nonetheless extend even to respondents aged 40-59 (i.e., those approximately 22 to 42 years beyond their school years) among both genders. Interpretations of the results are discussed.
Gail Frost, Oded Bar-Or, James Dowling and Catherine White
This study examined habituation to treadmill walking or running in children. Twenty-four boys and girls, ages 7–11, completed six 6-min trials of treadmill exercise at one of these speeds: (a) comfortable walking pace (CWP), (b) CWP + 15%, (c) running at CWP + 3 km·hr−1, or (d) running as above + 15%. The six trials were repeated in a second visit. The a priori criterion for habituation was a decrease in steady state values of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and stride rate (SR) or an increase in stride length (SL) and hip joint vertical amplitude (HA) from one trial to the next. There was no consistent pattern indicating habituation for the group. Many trials and more than one day of testing do not appear to improve the stability of the metabolic or kinematic variables. The lack of consistency in individual responses suggests that monitoring subjects’ habituation individually is important.
Neil Gibson, James White, Mhari Neish and Andrew Murray
The study aimed to assess whether exposure to ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a trained population would affect land-based maximal sprinting performance over 30 m.
Twenty-five well-trained participants regularly involved in invasion-type team-sport events were recruited to take part in a randomized crossover study design. Participants underwent both an IPC and a placebo treatment involving 3 periods of 5-min occlusion applied unilaterally (3 × 5-min occlusion to each leg) at either 220 mmHg or 50 mmHg, respectively. Each period of occlusion was followed by 5 min of reperfusion. After treatment, 3 maximal sprints over a distance of 30 m were undertaken from a standing start interspersed with 1-min recovery. Split times were recorded at 10, 20, and 30 m.
No significant effects of the IPC treatment were observed on sprint speed (P < .05) at any of the split timings; however, a small and negative effect was observed in female participants. Calculated effect sizes of the treatment were found to be trivial (<0.2).
Results from the current study suggest there to be no benefit to team-sport players in using IPC as a means of enhancing sprint performance over a distance of 30 m. While IPC has been shown to be beneficial to sprint activities in other sports such as swimming, further research is required to elucidate whether this is the case over distances associated with land-based events in track and field or in events reliant on repeated-sprint ability.
Timothy I. McCutcheon, James E. Curtis and Philip G. White
This paper reports on the distribution by socioeconomic status (SES) of injuries from sport and physical activities for each gender using data from a national sample of adult Canadians. The results show weak positive relationships between SES (various measures) and sport injury before controls for both genders, and that men are more likely to experience sports injuries than women. Workplace physical activity is negatively related to SES and negatively related to sport injury. Also, duration and intensity of sport and physical activities are positively related to SES and positively related to sport injuries. The effects of these intervening variables help account for the positive relationships of SES and sport injuries.
Daniel Jolley, Brian Dawson, Shane K. Maloney, James White, Carmel Goodman and Peter Peeling
This study investigated the influence of dehydration on urinary levels of pseudoephedrine (PSE) after prolonged repeated effort activity. Fourteen athletes performed a simulated team game circuit (STGC) outdoors over 120 min under three different hydration protocols: hydrated (HYD), dehydrated (DHY) and dehydrated + postexercise fluid bolus (BOL). In all trials, a 60 mg dose of PSE was administered 30 min before trial and at half time of the STGC. Urinary PSE levels were measured before drug administration and at 90 min postexercise. In addition, body mass (BM) changes and urinary specific gravity (USG), osmolality (OSM), creatinine (Cr), and pH values were recorded. No differences in PSE levels were found 90 min postexercise between conditions (HYD: 208.5 ± 116.5; DHY: 238.9 ± 93.5; BOL: 195.6 ± 107.3 μg·ml−1), although large variations were seen within and between participants across conditions (range: 33–475 μg·ml−1: ICC r = .03–0.16, p > .05). There were no differences between conditions in USG, OSM, pH or PSE/Cr ratio. In conclusion, hydration status did not influence urinary PSE levels after prolonged repeated effort activity, with ~70% of samples greater than the WADA limit (>150 μg.ml−1), and ~30% under. Due to the unpredictability of urinary PSE values, athletes should avoid taking any medications containing PSE during competition.