Learning a motor skill by analogy can benefit performers because the movement that is developed has characteristics of implicit motor learning: namely, movement robustness under pressure and secondary task distraction and limited accrual of explicit knowledge (Liao & Masters, 2001). At an applied level the advantages are lost, however, if the heuristic that underpins the analogy conveys abstractions that are inappropriate for the indigenous culture. The aim of the current experiment was to redevelop Masters’s (2000) right-angled-triangle analogy to accommodate abstractions appropriate for Chinese learners. Novice Chinese participants learned to hit table tennis forehands with topspin using either a redeveloped, culturally appropriate analogy (analogy learning) or a set of 6 instructions relevant to hitting a topspin forehand in table tennis (explicit learning). Analogy learners accrued less explicit knowledge of the movements underlying their performance than explicit learners. In addition, a secondary task load disrupted the performance of explicit learners but not analogy learners. These findings indicate that a culturally relevant analogy can bring about implicit motor learning in a Chinese population.
Jamie M. Poolton, Richard S.W. Masters and Jon P. Maxwell
Mariana Kaiseler, Jamie M. Poolton, Susan H. Backhouse and Nick Stanger
The role of dispositional mindfulness on stress in student-athletes and factors that mediate this relationship has yet to be examined. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the facets of mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes and whether these relationships are mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Participants were 202 student-athletes who completed validated measures of dispositional mindfulness, student-athlete life stress, decision rumination and coping effectiveness in sport. Results indicated that the acting with awareness and nonjudging facets of mindfulness were negative predictors of life stress, whereas the observe facet was a positive predictor of life stress. Mediation analyses revealed that these relationships were mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Findings provide new insight into the role dispositional mindfulness plays on student-athlete perceptions of life stress and implications for practitioners are discussed.
Neha Malhotra, Jamie M. Poolton, Mark R. Wilson, Liis Uiga and Rich S.W. Masters
Two experiments examined the roles of the dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment (movement selfconsciousness and conscious motor processing) on performance under demanding conditions. In Experiment 1, novice golfers practiced a golf putting task and were tested under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Conscious motor processing was not associated with putting proficiency or movement variability; however, movement self-consciousness was positively associated with putting proficiency and appeared to be negatively associated with variability of impact velocity in low-anxiety conditions, but not in high-anxiety conditions. Increased anxiety and effort possibly left few attention resources for movement self-consciousness under high anxiety. In Experiment 2, participants performed a quiet standing task in single- and dual-task conditions. Movement self-consciousness was positively associated with performance when attention demands were low (single task) but not when attention demands were high (dual task). The findings provide insight into the differential influence of the two dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment under demanding conditions.