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Jane Marie Stangl and Mary Jo Kane

The dramatic decline of women coaches since Title IX has been well documented. This investigation examined how homologous reproduction has influenced the proportion of female to male head coaches within the historical context of Title IX. Homologous reproduction is a process whereby dominants reproduce themselves based on social and/or physical characteristics. Therefore the employment relationship between sex of athletic director and sex of head coach was considered. The sample included 937 public high schools for three Title IX time periods. Analysis of variance procedures indicated significant main effects for sex of athletic director and Title IX timeframe: Significantly more women were hired under female versus male athletic directors. However, there was also a significantly smaller proportion of female coaches in 1981-82 and 1988-89 compared to 1974-75. This latter pattern occurred under both female and male athletic directors. Findings are discussed in terms of analyzing employment practices toward females as manifestations of hegemony.

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Jane Stangl, Brian Pronger, Michael A. Messner, Heather Sykes, and Eric Anderson