This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.
Janet B. Parks
Jacquelyn Cuneen and Janet B. Parks
In the September, 1995 issue of the Journal of Sport Management, W. James Weese suggested that NASSM should develop a more practical focus and philosophy in order to better serve sport management practitioners. He made several recommendations regarding future directions for NASSM and the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) designed to pursue that goal. We respectfully challenge Weese's position, arguing that the primary goal of NASSM and JSM should be to support and fortify the scholarship produced by the sport management professoriate, with the concomitant goal of having an impact on the way sport is managed. We suggest that NASSM and JSM have naturally evolved to protect and enhance sport management education. In the process, they have become eminent providers of continuing education and currently useful research to the sport management professoriate, student-scholars, and practitioners who seek a symbiotic relationship with the academy.
Sally R. Ross and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 115 undergraduate sport management students’ attitudes toward women’s roles in the workplace and three variables that might explain those attitudes: perspective taking, gender self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexist language. The participants, 88 men and 27 women, were enrolled in one midsize university in the Midwestern United States. On average, the participants were ambivalent about women’s roles. Women were significantly more supportive of women’s roles than were men (p < .001). Taken together, the ability to take the perspective of others and attitudes toward sexist language uniquely explained 16% of the variance in men’s attitudes toward women. Neither perspective taking, nor gender self-esteem, nor attitudes toward sexist language correlated significantly with the women’s attitudes toward women. Women’s gender self-esteem was inversely related to their attitudes toward women. Based on the results, suggestions for recruitment, curriculum development, and classroom strategies for enhancing sport management students’ attitudes toward women are presented.
Janet B. Parks and Luis Fernando Parra
This study investigated job satisfaction of alumnae/i of an undergraduate sport management program (N = 254). It questioned whether there would be a significant difference between job satisfaction scores of alumnae/i employed in positions related to sport and the scores of alumnae/i employed in positions unrelated to sport. Job satisfaction was measured by the Job Descriptive Index and the Job in General scales (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). Eighty-four (71.2%) of the 118 respondents held positions related to sport and 34 (28.8%) were in positions unrelated to sport. A MANOVA with follow-up ANOVAs was used to examine differences in satisfaction scores across the “jobs related to sport/jobs unrelated to sport” distinction. Except for “satisfaction with present pay,” no significant differences were found. These results suggested that sport management alumnae/i who obtain jobs unrelated to sport may have approximately equal prospects of attaining job satisfaction as graduates who obtain jobs related to sport.
Janet B. Parks and Gordon A. Olafson
Janet B. Parks and Mary Ann Roberton
This paper discusses three studies on changing people's attitudes toward sexist/nonsexist language. In Study 1, sport management students (N= 164) were asked how to persuade others to use nonsexist language. Many suggested education. Study 2 participants (N = 201) were asked if they had ever discussed sexist language in instructional settings. Analysis of their attitudes revealed an interaction between gender and instruction. Study 3 (N = 248) tested the effects of 3 types of instruction on student attitudes about sexist/nonsexist language. After a 50-minute intervention, Study 3 participants were generally undecided about sexist/nonsexist language, and their attitudes did not differ across instructional strategies (p > .01). In all conditions, males were significantly less receptive to nonsexist language than females (p < .01). This “gender gap” was magnified by a combination of direct and indirect instruction. Until more is known, the authors propose (a) modeling and (b) instruction grounded in empathy as initial strategies for teaching inclusive language.
Janet B. Parks and Michael E. Bartley
Scholarship expectations of many universities in the United States are becoming more stringent. The purpose of this study was to examine variables associated with the scholarship of the sport management professoriate. The participants were 266 of the 422 academics in the NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Program List (1991). Chi-square tests of independence (alpha < .004) revealed slight tendencies for (a) younger faculty to have doctorates in areas such as sport management, psychology/sociology of sport, and legal aspects of sport rather than in physical education; (b) younger faculty to have more publications than older faculty; (c) women to be concentrated in the lower ranks and salary ranges; and (d) movement toward gender parity in rank and salary. This study should be replicated in 5 years to discover if these tendencies were precursors of trends.
Mary Jo Kane and Janet B. Parks
Past researchers have consistently demonstrated that female and male athletes receive differential treatment in the media: males are presented in ways that emphasize their physical/athletic ability, while females are portrayed in terms of their femininity and physical attractiveness. Researchers have concluded that this pattern of coverage is a manifestation of the social construction of gender difference and hierarchy in sport and thus serves a patriarchal agenda. However, a widely-held “common-sense” perception is that differential treatment occurs due to methodological inconsistencies related to prior research, rather than to media bias designed to devalue and disempower women. For example, in the past, researchers have examined different media types, sports, readerships and editorial policies. These methodological variations are frequently offered by various audiences (ranging from academicians to the general public) as alternative, competing explanations for differential coverage found in prior research. An example of competing explanation, grounded in methodological concerns, is the following: the difference in coverage is perceived to have occurred because one researcher examined professional tennis while another researcher focused on intercollegiate basketball. Implicit in this perception is the suggestion that different sport levels and types are responsible for differential coverage, not media bias. Controlling for methodological differences in previous research, the hermeneutic method was employed to analyze the written text of feature articles in the same magazine (Sports Illustrated), for the same year (1989), covering the same sport (professional tennis). Statements in the text that referred to female and male athletes were classified within a Performance Related Dimension (athletic ability, mental ability, strength of character) or a Non-Performance Related Dimension (emotions, physical appearance, personal life). In spite of tight methodological controls, a consistent pattern of gender difference and hierarchy was found throughout the feature articles. Implications of the study relative to future research that address consumers’ perceptions of media portrayals are presented.
Lori W. Tucker and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 162 Division I-A intercollegiate athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of aggression in sport. Athletes in collision, contact, and noncontact sports completed the Sport Behavior Inventory (Conroy, Silva, Newcomer, Walker, & Johnson, in press). Overall, the athletes did not consider aggression legitimate. A 3 (sport type) x 2 (gender) ANOVA (alpha = .05) with post hoc comparisons showed that athletes in contact and noncontact sports scored lower than those in collision sports. Females scored lower than males. A significant interaction revealed a greater gender difference in noncontact sports than in collision or contact. In noncontact sports, gender role expectations could be the dominant influence for males, while role expectations and in-sport behavioral norms influence females. In collision and contact sports, in-sport norms could reinforce role expectations for males but encourage females to demonstrate behaviors inconsistent with traditional expectations.