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  • Author: Janet E. Fulton x
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Michael Pratt and Janet E. Fulton

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Deborah A. Galuska and Janet E. Fulton

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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Janet E. Fulton and Laura Kann

Background:

To help inform policies and programs, a need exists to understand the extent to which Healthy People 2010 objectives for physical activity, physical education (PE), and television (TV) viewing among adolescents are being achieved.

Methods:

As part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 5 national school-based surveys were conducted biennially from 1999 through 2007. Each survey used a 3-stage cross-sectional sample of students in grades 9 to 12 and provided self-reported data from approximately 14,000 students. Logistic regression models that controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade were used to analyze secular trends.

Results:

During 1999 to 2007, prevalence estimates for regular participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity, participation in daily PE classes, and being physically active in PE classes did not change significantly among female, male, white, black, or Hispanic students. In contrast, the prevalence of TV viewing for 2 or fewer hours on a school day increased significantly among female, male, white, black, and Hispanic students and among students in every grade except 12th grade.

Conclusions:

Among US adolescents, no significant progress has been made toward increasing participation in physical activity or school PE classes; however, improvements have been made in reducing TV viewing time.

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Carmen D. Harris, Prabasaj Paul, Xingyou Zhang and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Fewer than 30% of U.S. youth meet the recommendation to be active > 60 minutes/day. Access to parks may encourage higher levels of physical activity.

Purpose:

To examine differences in park access among U.S. school-age youth, by demographic characteristics and urbanicity of block group.

Methods:

Park data from 2012 were obtained from TomTom, Incorporated. Population data were obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census and American Community Survey 2006–2010. Using a park access score for each block group based on the number of national, state or local parks within one-half mile, we examined park access among youth by majority race/ethnicity, median household income, median education, and urbanicity of block groups.

Results:

Overall, 61.3% of school-age youth had park access—64.3% in urban, 36.5% in large rural, 37.8% in small rural, and 35.8% in isolated block groups. Park access was higher among youth in block groups with higher median household income and higher median education.

Conclusion:

Urban youth are more likely to have park access. However, park access also varies by race/ethnicity, median education, and median household. Considering both the demographics and urbanicity may lead to better characterization of park access and its association with physical activity among youth.

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Prabasaj Paul, Susan A. Carlson and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

The association between walking and environmental attributes depends on walking purpose. This study, based on a large survey of U.S. adults, examined the association between perceived neighborhood safety and built environment attributes, and walking for transportation and leisure.

Methods:

Data were obtained on transportation and leisure-time walking, perceived neighborhood safety and built environment attributes, and demographic characteristics from the summer wave of the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey of 3951 U.S. adults. Associations were examined by demographic characteristics.

Results:

Seventy-five percent of respondents reported walking for either transportation (54%) or leisure (56%) in the past week, 59% reported no safety concern, and 36% reported absence of any built environment attribute of walkability nearby. Respondents with more education, and those who lived in metropolitan areas were more likely to report built environment attributes supportive of walking. All built environment attributes examined, as well as safety concern due to speeding vehicles, were associated with walking after adjustment for demographic characteristics.

Conclusion:

Walking, particularly for transportation, is associated with many built environment attributes among U.S. adults. These attributes may be important to consider when designing and modifying the built environment of communities, especially those which are less walkable.

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Susan A. Carlson, Dianna Densmore, Janet E. Fulton, Michelle M. Yore and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

Three U.S. surveillance systems—National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)—estimate physical activity prevalence.

Methods:

Survey differences were examined qualitatively. Prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity were assessed for comparable survey periods. Trends were examined from NHIS 1998 to 2007, NHANES 1999 to 2006, and BRFSS 2001 to 2007.

Results:

Age-adjusted prevalence estimates appeared most similar for NHIS 2005 (physically active: 30.2%, inactive: 40.7%) and NHANES 2005 to 2006 (physically active: 33.5%, inactive: 32.4%). In BRFSS 2005, prevalence of being physically active was 48.3% and inactive was 13.9%. Across all systems, men were more likely to be active than women; non-Hispanic whites were most likely to be active; as age increased, overall prevalence of being active decreased. Prevalence of being active exhibited a significant increasing trend only in BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001), while prevalence of being inactive decreased significantly in NHANES 1999 to 2006 (P < .001) and BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Different ways of assessing physical activity in surveillance systems result in different prevalence estimates. Before comparing estimates from different systems, all aspects of data collection and data analysis should be examined to determine if comparisons are appropriate.

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Fleetwood Loustalot, Susan A. Carlson, Janet E. Fulton, Judy Kruger, Deborah A. Galuska and Felipe Lobelo

Background:

Accurate surveillance data on physical activity prevalence is important for U.S. states and territories as they develop programs and interventions to increase physical activity participation.

Methods:

Using 2007 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimated the percentage of U.S. adults in each U.S. state and territory who met minimum aerobic activity criteria using the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2008 Guidelines) and the Healthy People 2010 criteria for physical activity. SUDAAN was used to calculate prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals.

Results:

The estimated prevalence of recommended aerobic activity in U.S. states and territories ranged from 44.5% to 73.3% according to 2008 Guidelines and from 30.8% to 60.0% according to Healthy People 2010 criteria. Absolute percent differences in prevalence among U.S. states and territories ranged from 11.7% to 19.1%, and relative percent differences ranged from 20.8% to 44.6%.

Conclusions:

In all U.S. states and territories, a larger proportion of U.S. adults met minimum aerobic activity criteria in the 2008 Guidelines than met corresponding criteria in Healthy People 2010. This difference, however, does not reflect an actual change in the amount of aerobic activity, but a change to the criteria for meeting 2008 Guidelines.

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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Deborah A. Galuska, Janet E. Fulton, Lisa C. Barrios and Laura Kann

Background:

Few studies have focused on the relationship between physical activity-related (PA) injury and overweight among youth.

Methods:

We analyzed data from the 2001 and 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 28,815). Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of BMI and frequency of participation in vigorous activity, moderate activity, strengthening exercises, physical education (PE) classes, and team sports on the likelihood of PA injury.

Results:

Approximately 14% of females and 19% of males reported seeing a doctor or nurse during the previous 30 d for an injury that happened while exercising or playing sports. PA injury was associated with participation in team sports, strengthening exercises, and (among females) vigorous physical activity. Controlling for type and frequency of physical activity, injury was not associated with being overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile).

Conclusions:

Moderate physical activity and school PE classes may provide relatively low-risk alternatives for overweight youth who need to increase their physical activity.

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MinKyoung Song, Dianna D. Carroll, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines recommend youth participate in a variety of physical activities; however, few nationally representative studies describe the types and variety of youth activity. This study assessed the most frequently reported types and variety of activities among U.S. high school students, and examined the association between variety and meeting the 2008 Guidelines for aerobic activity (aerobic guideline).

Methods:

We analyzed data on 8628 U.S. high school students in grades 9–12 from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. Types of physical activity were assessed by identifying which activities each student reported in the past 7 days. Variety was assessed by the total number of different activities each student reported. Percentage (95% CI) of students who reported engaging in each activity was assessed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between variety and meeting the aerobic guideline.

Results:

Walking was the most frequently reported activity among U.S. high school students. On average, students reported participating in 6 different activities. Variety was positively associated with meeting the aerobic guideline.

Conclusions:

These findings support encouraging youth to participate in many physical activities and may be useful for developing interventions that focus on the most prevalent activities.