Reduction of body stores of carbohydrate and blood glucose is related to the perception of fatigue and the inability to maintain high-quality performance. This has been clearly shown with aerobic, endurance events of moderate intensity of over 90 min duration. Carbohydrate intake may also have relevance for athletes involved in short, high-intensity events, especially if body weight control is an issue. Prevention of carbohydrate depletion begins with a high-carbohydrate training diet of about 60-70% carbohydrate. If possible, carbohydrate beverages should be consumed during the event at the rate of 30-70 g/hr to reduce the chance of body carbohydrate depletion. Finally, replacement of body carbohydrate stores can be achieved most rapidly if 40-60 g of carbohydrate is consumed as soon as possible after the exercise and at repeating 1-hr intervals for at least 5 hr after the event.
Elizabeth L. Abbey and Janet Walberg Rankin
Maintenance of repeated-sprint performance is a goal during team-sport competition such as soccer. Quercetin has been shown to be an adenosine-receptor antagonist and may reduce oxidative stress via inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of quercetin consumption on performance of repeated sprints and, secondarily, the XO and inflammatory-marker response induced by repeated-sprint exercise. Fifteen recreationally active, young adult men completed 2 repeated-sprint tests (RST), 12 × 30-m maximal-effort sprints (S1–S12), each after 1 wk supplementation with a placebo, a 6% carbohydrate commercial sports drink, or that drink with 500 mg of quercetin-3-glucoside, consumed twice a day (1,000 mg/d). Blood samples were collected before supplementation (B0), at baseline before each RST (B1), immediately after RST (B2), and 1 hr after RST (B3). Mean sprint time increased progressively and was significantly higher by S9 for both treatments (5.9%); however, there were no significant differences between treatments. Percent fatigue decrement (%FD) for placebo (3.8% ± 2.3%) was significantly less than with quercetin (5.1% ± 2.7%). Changes in blood XO, IL-6, and uric acid from B1 to B2 were +47%, +77%, and +25%, respectively, with no difference by treatment. In conclusion, repeated-sprint performance was not improved by quercetin supplementation and was worse than with placebo when expressed as %FD. Quercetin did not attenuate indicators of XO activity or IL-6, a marker of the inflammatory response after sprint exercise.
Elizabeth L. Abbey and Janet Walberg Rankin
This study compared the effect of a honey-sweetened beverage with those of a commercial sports drink and a placebo on performance and inflammatory response to a 90-min soccer simulation.
Ten experienced male soccer players randomly performed 3 trials (honey [H], sports drink [S], and placebo [P]), consuming the beverage before and during halftime for a total of 1.0 g/kg carbohydrate for H and S. Performance measures included 5 sets (T1–T5) of a high-intensity run and agility and ball-shooting tests followed by a final progressive shuttle-run (PSR) test to exhaustion. Blood samples were drawn pretest, posttest (B2), and 1 hr posttest (B3) for markers of inflammation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and hormone response.
T2–T5 were significantly slower than T1 (p < .05), and a decrease in PSR time was observed from baseline (–22.9%) for all treatments. No significant effect of the interventions was observed for any performance measures. Plasma IL-1ra levels increased posttest for all treatments (65.5% S, 63.9% P, and 25.8% H), but H was significantly less than S at posttest and P at B3. Other cytokines and ORAC increased at B2 (548% IL-6, 514% IL-10, 15% ORAC) with no difference by treatment.
Acute ingestion of honey and a carbohydrate sports drink before and during a soccer-simulation test did not improve performance, although honey attenuated a rise in IL-1ra. Ingestion of carbohydrate and/or antioxidant-containing beverages at frequencies typical of a regulation match may not be beneficial for trained soccer players.
Janet Walberg-Rankin, Cynthia Eckstein Edmonds, and Frank C. Gwazdauskas
This study assessed nutritional and body weight patterns in 6 female body- builders approximately a month before and after a competition. The women kept dietary and body weight records and two of them also agreed to collect morning urine samples to provide information about their menstrual cycle. All women lost weight before and gained weight after competition. Energy intake was modestly restricted and the subjects consumed a moderate-protein, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet just prior to competition. Energy intake doubled, and total grams of fat increased approximately tenfold just after competition. Urinary data indicated that the cycle following competition was prolonged, with reduced reproductive hormone concentrations. In summary, the women practiced extreme dietary control while preparing for a competi- tion but followed the event with a higher energy and fat intake. These changes in diet and body weight may contribute to the disturbances previously observed in the menstrual cycle of these athletes.
Renee A. Dalton, Janet Walberg Rankin, Don Sebolt, and Frank Gwazdauskas
The effect of acute carbohydrate consumption on performance and metabolism of resistance-trained males was determined. Twenty-two subjects, assigned to either carbohydrate (C, n = 8), placebo (P, n - 8), or control (N, n = 6), performed standardized workouts every other day for a week prior to testing and throughout the testing period. Three of these workouts (Tl, T2, and T3) were the performance test in that the last bouts of leg extension and bench press were done to failure at 80% of 10 repetition maximum. A carbohydrate or placebo beverage was consumed 30 min prior to T3. Blood samples were drawn before and after T2 and T3. There was no effect of carbohydrate or energy restriction on number of repetitions done during the leg extension performance test. Carbohydrate intake prior to a resistance exercise bout done in negative energy balance state did not affect performance or evidence of muscle damage.
Michelle Smith Rockwell, Janet Walberg Rankin, and Helen Dixon
This study investigated the effect of initial muscle glycogen on performance of repeated sprints and some potential mechanisms for an effect of glycogen on fatigue. Eight subjects performed 2 cycling trials (repeated 60-s sprints) following consumption of either a high carbohydrate (HC) or a low carbohydrate (LC) diet. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected at baseline, following a 15% (15% fatigue) and a 30% decline in sprint performance (30% fatigue), when exercise was terminated. Baseline muscle glycogen levels [346 ± 19 HC (SEM) vs. 222 ± 19 mmol/kg dw LC] and total exercise time to 30% fatigue were higher following HC than LC (57.5 ± 10.0 vs. 42.0 ± 3.6 min; p < .05). Similar significant (p < .05) decreases over the entire exercise bout were seen in muscle glycogen (43%), creatine phosphate (CP; 35%), and sarcoplasmic reticu-lum (SR) Ca2+-uptake in isolated homogenized muscle (56%) for both trials (p > .05 between trials). The percentage decline in SR Ca2+-release was less for HC than LC (36% and 53%, respectively), but this was not statistically different. In summary, HC delayed fatigue during repeated sprints. As the reductions in muscle glycogen, CP, and SR function during exercise were not different by dietary treatment, these data do not support a link between whole muscle glyco-gen and SR function or CP reduction during repeated sprint exercise.
Janet R. Wojcik, Janet Walberg-Rankin, Lucille L. Smith, and F.C. Gwazdauskas
This study examined effects of carbohydrate (CHO), milk-based carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO), or placebo (P) beverages on glycogen resynthesis, muscle damage, inflammation, and muscle function following eccentric resistance exercise. Untrained males performed a cycling exercise to reduce muscle glycogen 12 hours prior to performance of 100 eccentric quadriceps contractions at 120% of 1-RM (day 1) and drank CHO (n = 8), CHO-PRO (n = 9; 5 kcal/kg), or P (n = 9) immediately and 2 hours post-exercise. At 3 hours post-eccentric exercise, serum insulin was four times higher for CHO-PRO and CHO than P (p < .05). Serum creatine kinase (CK) increased for all groups in the 6 hours post-eccentric exercise (p < .01), with the increase tending to be lowest for CHO-PRO (p < .08) during this period. Glycogen was low post-exercise (33 ± 3.7 mmol/kg ww), increased 225% at 24 hours, and tripled by 72 hours, with no group differences. The eccentric exercise increased muscle protein breakdown as indicated by urinary 3-methylhistidine and increased IL-6 with no effect of beverage. Quadriceps isokinetic peak torque was depressed similarly for all groups by 24% 24 hours post-exercise and remained 21 % lower at 72 hours (p < .01). In summary, there were no influences of any post-exercise beverage on muscle glycogen replacement, inflammation, or muscle function.