Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc and chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.
Jerry A. Frentsos and Janine T. Baer
Robert A. Niekamp and Janine T. Baer
The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary adequacy of 12 collegiate cross-country runners during a competitive season. Four-day diet records were collected twice during the season and analyzed for total daily energy, macronutrients, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin
Laura Lewis Frank, Janine T. Baer, Charles P. Lambert, and Mark L. Anderson
The effect of fungal carbohydrases (Carbogen™ [C]) consumed with a meal replacement bar (MBR) on glucose metabolism and exercise performance was determined in 5 male competitive cyclists. After a 12-hour fast, subjects performed two 60-min cycling bouts at 80% V̇O2max followed by a time-to-exhaustion (TE) ride at 100% V̇O2max. One hour prior to each cycling bout, subjects ingested a MRB + 160-mg C or 160-mg CaCO3 placebo (PL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced fashion. Blood was drawn for determination of glucose, insulin, and lactate at: fasting, 1 hour post-feeding, minutes 30 and 60 of exercise, and after TE. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < .05) treatment and time effect for glucose, with C being higher than PL. Interaction effects were ob-· served for insulin and lactate. An increase in TE (min) at 100% V̇O2max was observed in the C versus PL trial (6.3 ± 3.4 vs. 4.4 ± 2.9, p < .001). A MRB+C may benefit cyclists due to increased BG and improved exercise performance.