Consumers’ evaluations of their favorite sport team’s contests are influenced by the value that the team provides to them. The current research contributes to the sport management literature through conceptualizing and measuring the dimensions that influence the perceived value consumers link with their favorite sport team’s games and testing the explanatory ability of this perceived value on their satisfaction with, and commitment toward, the team. Five semistructured expert interviews were conducted to conceptualize perceived value dimensions and measurement items. Next, a multidimensional Consumers’ Perceived Value of Sport Games scale (CPVSG) was developed and tested across two studies with football (soccer) consumers (N 1 = 225; N 2 = 382) in Germany. Results from confirmatory factor and structural equation modeling analyses indicate that five dimensions—functional, social, emotional, epistemic, and economic value—reflect perceived value dimensions that consumers associate with sport team games. Results also indicated these perceived value dimensions were predictive of consumers’ satisfaction with, and commitment toward, their favorite team. Thus, this research adds to the literature by providing the multidimensional CPVSG scale and demonstrating its value in explaining variance in attitudinal outcome variables.
Thilo Kunkel, Jason Patrick Doyle, and Alexander Berlin
Daniel Lock, Daniel C. Funk, Jason P. Doyle, and Heath McDonald
The propensity of strongly identified fans to contribute positive organizational outcomes for sport teams underpins why team identification maintains a central position in sport management. In the current study we examine the multidimensional structure, stability, and interrelationships between the dimensions of team identification, using longitudinal data (April 2011–April 2012) collected from fans of a new Australian Rules football team (N = 602). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the team identification items included (measured using the Team*ID scale), supported a five-dimensional model structure. This model was subsequently computed as a longitudinal CFA to test the configural and metric invariance of the Team*ID scale. We used a cross-lagged panel model to examine the longitudinal stability of, and interrelationships between, the dimensions: affect, behavioral involvement, cognitive awareness, private evaluation, and public evaluation. Each dimension displayed relative stability over time. In addition, public evaluation and private evaluation in April 2011 displayed a positive relationship with behavioral involvement in April 2012. Similarly, cognitive awareness in April 2011 predicted increases in public evaluation in April 2012. We conclude with implications for theory and practice.
Yiran Su, Bradley J. Baker, Jason P. Doyle, and Meimei Yan
As COVID-19 lockdowns force most sport leagues into hiatus, engaging fans has emerged as a key challenge confronting the sport industry. While navigating social distancing protocols, athletes are experimenting with new ways to connect with their fans. Alongside established social media platforms (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram), TikTok, a short-form video-sharing platform, has gained prominence in terms of registered users and shared content. Yet, little is known about the utility of TikTok as an athlete branding tool. This study uses a netnographic approach to explore the use of TikTok among athletes (N = 10) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings reveal that athlete-generated TikTok videos are characterized as playful and authentic. While athletes are recent adopters of TikTok, this emerging social media platform can be profitably integrated into their online branding strategies. Communicating via TikTok presents opportunities for athletes to foster existing fan relationships, promote branded content, and appeal to new fan segments. Overall, athletes and sport practitioners can leverage these findings to create content for an audience that is attracted to novelty and the activities of athletes extending beyond game highlights or interviews.
Jason Doyle, Kevin Filo, Alana Thomson, and Thilo Kunkel
Delivering community-based benefits is oftentimes cited to justify the high costs associated with hosting large-scale events. The current research is embedded in positive psychology to examine how an event impacts host community members’ PERMA domains, reflected through positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Adopting a longitudinal approach, the authors interviewed 15 host community members before and after a large-scale sport event to determine if and how the event impacted their well-being. The findings uncovered evidence that the event activated positive emotions, relationships, and meaning across both phases, and evidence of accomplishment within the postevent phase. The findings contribute to the knowledge by examining the links between large-scale sport events and well-being throughout the event lifecycle. This research forwards implications for event bidding committees, event organizers, and host community officials to maximize community well-being through hosting large-scale events and to help justify associated expenses from a social–psychological perspective.
Thilo Kunkel, Jason P. Doyle, Daniel C. Funk, James Du, and Heath McDonald
The importance of team brand associations in sport management research is well documented, but the formation and stability of these associations has not been investigated. The current research tested the development, change, and predictive ability of brand associations over time. Longitudinal quantitative data were collected from consumers of a new Australian Football League (AFL) team (N = 169) at 3 points in time. One-sample t-tests revealed that brand associations had developed through marketing communications and the launch of the team before the team had played its first AFL game. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and latent growth modeling showed that brand associations changed over time, reflecting consumers’ experiences with the team. A cross-lagged panel model highlighted that brand associations influenced consumer loyalty in the future. Consequently, sport managers are provided with insights on the development of and change in brand associations that new consumers link with sport teams.