Arguments for funding new professional sport stadia with public money center upon the notion of community—fans’ connection with the teams and the money that teams bring into the community. Through the lens of community theorists like Wirth (1938, 1964), Bellah and colleagues (1985), and Putnam (2000), this paper locates the professional sport franchise within local community relations and analyzes the ways in which local elites attempt to evoke community support (both emotional and financial) for their franchise. Following Ingham and McDonald (2003), we argue that professional sport is not an effective means for re-building any lasting sense of community. The results of town meetings held with citizens of Hamilton County, Ohio, reveal schisms along class, urban/suburban, and fan/non-fan lines, demonstrating that public subsidization of professional sport not only does not (re)generate a community-as-a-whole, but indeed may further divide residents depending upon their situated interests.
Jason M. Smith and Alan G. Ingham
Allen C. Parcell, Jason M. Smith, Shane S. Schulthies, J. William Myrer and Gilbert Fellingham
It is purported that supplementation with Cordyceps Sinensis (CordyMax Cs-4) will improve oxidative capacity and endurance performance. The intent of this investigation was to examine the effects of CordyMax Cs-4 supplementation on VO2peak, ventilatory threshold, and endurance performance in endurance-trained cyclists. Twenty-two male cyclists participated in 5 weeks of supplementation with CordyMax Cs-4 tablets (3 g/d). Training intensity was maintained by weekly documentation and reporting throughout the 5-week period. Subjects completed a VO2peak test and work-based time trial prior to and following the supplementation period. VO2peak was similar within and between placebo (PLA) and treatment (CS) groups prior to (59.9 ± 5.9 vs. 59.1 ± 5.4 ml/kg/min, respectively) and following (60.1 ± 5.5 vs. 57.1 ± 5.8 ml/kg/min, respectively) the supplementation period. Ventilatory threshold (VT) was measured at 72 ± 10% of VO2peak in P and T prior to supplementation and did not change in either group following the supplementation. PLA completed the time trial in 61.4 ± 2.4 min compared to 62.1 ± 4.0 min in T. Time trial measurements did not differ between groups, nor did they change in response to supplementation. It is concluded that 5 weeks of CordyMax Cs-4 supplementation has no effect on aerobic capacity or endurance exercise performance in endurance-trained male cyclists.