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Nels Popp, Jason Miller and Marion Hambrick

The United States Tennis Association is the National Governing Body for tennis in the U.S. and is comprised of three major divisions: (a) professional tennis, (b) player development, and (c) community tennis. The USTA’s signature event and primary source of income is the U.S. Open tennis tournament. The organization currently faces several challenges, including two issues which have received significant media attention. The USTA currently lags behind several other nations in developing elite young players, despite the U.S. having large participant numbers. Also, financially-speaking, the U.S. Open is a highly successful event, but its largest show court lacks a roof, which has proven costly as several championship events have been postponed due to weather. The challenge of this case study is for students to develop a strategic plan for how the USTA can best use their resources to grow tennis in the United States.

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Gershon Tenenbaum, David N. Sacks, Jason W. Miller, Amy S. Golden and Nora Doolin

In response to Ken’s (1999) rejoinder to the International Society of Sport Psychology’s (ISSP) Position Stand (PS) on aggression and violence in sport (Tenenbaum. Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997), this reply refutes Kerr’s criticisms and further advocates the recommendations provided by the ISSP to drastically reduce aggression among athletes and spectators. Specifically, this paper answers Kerr’s (1999) accusations that the PS fails to provide an understanding of the motivation behind aggression in sport, does not distinguish between athlete and spectator violence, makes improper conclusions regarding the media’s influence, and incorrectly blames officials for inflaming aggressive acts. Support is offered to vindicate the PS. The example cited by Kerr to discredit the PS recommendations is shown to be congruent with the ISSP’s suggestions for reducing aggression and violence in sport. Readers are urged to approach with caution arguments that consider aggression an essential component of sport, as such views increase the risk of injury among participants and spectators. Additional suggestions for reducing the incidence of aggression and violence in sport are invited.

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Jason C. Gillette, Catherine A. Stevermer, Ross H. Miller, W. Brent Edwards and Charles V. Schwab

Farm youth often carry loads that are proportionally large and/or heavy, and field measurements have determined that these tasks are equivalent to industrial jobs with high injury risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age, load amount, and load symmetry on lower extremity joint moments during carrying tasks. Three age groups (8–10 years, 12–14 years, adults), three load amounts (0%, 10%, 20% BW), and three load symmetry levels (unilateral large bucket, unilateral small bucket, bilateral small buckets) were tested. Inverse dynamics was used to determine maximum ankle, knee, and hip joint moments. Ankle dorsiflexion, ankle inversion, ankle eversion, knee adduction, and hip extension moments were significantly higher in 8–10 and 12–14 year olds. Ankle plantar flexion, ankle inversion, knee extension, and hip extension moments were significantly increased at 10% and 20% BW loads. Knee and hip adduction moments were significantly increased at 10% and 20% BW loads when carrying a unilateral large bucket. Of particular concern are increased ankle inversion and eversion moments for children, along with increased knee and hip adduction moments for heavy, asymmetrical carrying tasks. Carrying loads bilaterally instead of unilaterally avoided increases in knee and hip adduction moments with increased load amount.

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Ross H. Miller, Stacey A. Meardon, Timothy R. Derrick and Jason C. Gillette

Previous research has proposed that a lack of variability in lower extremity coupling during running is associated with pathology. The purpose of the study was to evaluate lower extremity coupling variability in runners with and without a history of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) during an exhaustive run. Sixteen runners ran to voluntary exhaustion on a motorized treadmill while a motion capture system recorded reflective marker locations. Eight runners had a history of ITBS. At the start and end of the run, continuous relative phase (CRP) angles and CRP variability between strides were calculated for key lower extremity kinematic couplings. The ITBS runners demonstrated less CRP variability than controls in several couplings between segments that have been associated with knee pain and ITBS symptoms, including tibia rotation–rearfoot motion and rearfoot motion–thigh ad/abduction, but more variability in knee flexion/extension–foot ad/abduction. The ITBS runners also demonstrated low variability at heel strike in coupling between rearfoot motion–tibia rotation. The results suggest that runners prone to ITBS use abnormal segmental coordination patterns, particular in couplings involving thigh ad/abduction and tibia internal/external rotation. Implications for variability in injury etiology are suggested.