Regular sport practice could prevent age-related changes in tendinous tissues. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of regular badminton practice on patellar and Achilles tendon mechanical properties in senior competitive badminton players (>35 years old) and to compare the results with physically active people matched by age. One hundred ninety-two badminton players and 193 physically active people were divided by age into four groups, between 35 and 44 (U45), between 45 and 54 (U55), between 55 and 64 (U65), and over 65 (O65) years old. A LogiqS8 transducer in elastography mode and a MyotonPRO myotonometer were used to assess patellar and Achilles mechanical properties. Achilles tendon stiffness was higher in the control group than the badminton players for the U45, U55, and O65 age groups (p < .01). Also, the elastography index was higher in the control group than the badminton players for the U45, U55, U65, and O65 age groups (p < .05). In conclusion, regular badminton practice could prevent the decline in mechanical properties of the patellar and Achilles tendons.
Alfredo Bravo-Sánchez, Pablo Abián, Filipa Sousa, Fernando Jimenez, and Javier Abián-Vicén
Javier Abian-Vicen, Adrián Castanedo, Pablo Abian, Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Juan José Salinero, and Juan Del Coso
The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P < .05). No significant differences were found in handgrip force when comparing prepost matches or rounds, although there were significant differences between dominant and nondominant hands (P < .05). The succession of rounds caused the appearance of proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, and higher nitrite and ketone concentrations in urine. Rehydration patterns during a real badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players’ renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.
Juan Del Coso, Javier Portillo, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abian-Vicen, and Francisco Areces
The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance of elite field hockey players during a game. On 2 days separated by a week, 13 elite field hockey players (age and body mass = 23.2 ± 3.9 years and 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants played a simulated field hockey game (2 × 25 min). Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the game were assessed using GPS devices. The total number of accelerations and decelerations was determined by accelerometry. Compared with the placebo drink, the caffeinated energy drink did not modify the total distance covered during the game (6,035 ± 451 m and 6,055 ± 499 m, respectively; p = .87), average heart rate (155 ± 13 beats per min and 158 ± 18 beats per min, respectively; p = .46), or the number of accelerations and decelerations (697 ± 285 and 618 ± 221, respectively; p = .15). However, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the distance covered at moderate-intensity running (793 ± 135 and 712 ± 116, respectively; p = .03) and increased the distance covered at high-intensity running (303 ± 67 m and 358 ± 117 m; p = .05) and sprinting (85 ± 41 m and 117 ± 55 m, respectively; p = .02). Elite field hockey players can benefit from ingesting caffeinated energy drinks because they increase the running distance covered at high-intensity running and sprinting. Increased running distance at high speed might represent a meaningful advantage for field hockey performance.
Francisco Javier Diaz-Lara, Juan del Coso, Javier Portillo, Francisco Areces, Jose Manuel García, and Javier Abián-Vicén
Although caffeine is one of the most commonly used substances in combat sports, information about its ergogenic effects on these disciplines is very limited.
To determine the effectiveness of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine to enhance overall performance during a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) competition.
Fourteen elite BJJ athletes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design. In a random order, the athletes ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo (cellulose, 0 mg/kg) and performed 2 simulated BJJ combats (with 20 min rest between them), following official BJJ rules. Specific physical tests such as maximal handgrip dynamometry, maximal height during a countermovement jump, permanence during a maximal static-lift test, peak power in a bench-press exercise, and blood lactate concentration were measured at 3 specific times: before the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. The combats were video-recorded to analyze fight actions.
After the caffeine ingestion, participants spent more time in offensive actions in both combats and revealed higher blood lactate values (P < .05). Performance in all physical tests carried out before the first combat was enhanced with caffeine (P < .05), and some improvements remained after the first combat (eg, maximal static-lift test and bench-press exercise; P < .05). After the second combat, the values in all physical tests were similar between caffeine and placebo.
Caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid for improving intensity and physical performance during successive elite BJJ combats.
Juan Del Coso, Alberto Pérez-López, Javier Abian-Vicen, Juan Jose Salinero, Beatriz Lara, and David Valadés
There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P < .05) and the mean jump height in SJ (31.1 ± 4.3 vs 32.7 ± 4.2 cm, P < .05), CMJ (35.9 ± 4.6 vs 37.7 ± 4.4 cm, P < .05), and 15RJ (29.0 ± 4.0 vs 30.5 ± 4.6 cm, P < .05). The time to complete the agility test was significantly reduced with the caffeinated energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P < .05). In addition, players performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P < .05) with the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players.
Juan J. Salinero, Cristina González-Millán, Javier Abián-Vicén, and Juan Del Coso Garrigós
The goal of dorsiflexion sports shoes is to increase jumping capacity by means of a lower position of the heel in relation to the forefoot which results in additional stretching of the ankle plantar flexors. The aim of this study was to compare a dorsiflexion sports shoe model with two conventional sports shoe models in a countermovement jump test. The sample consisted of 35 participants who performed a countermovement jump test on a force platform wearing the three models of shoes. There were significant differences in the way force was manifested (P < 0.05) in the countermovement jump test, with a decrease in the velocity of the center of gravity and an increase in force at peak power and mean force in the concentric phase. Moreover, peak power was reached earlier with the dorsiflexion sports shoe model. The drop of the center of gravity was increased in CS1 in contrast to the dorsiflexion sports shoe model (P < .05). However, the dorsiflexion sports shoes were not effective for improving either peak power or jump height (P > .05). Although force manifestation and jump kinetics differ between dorsiflexion shoes and conventional sports shoes, jump performance was similar.
César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, Javier Abián-Vicén, Beatriz Lara, Juan José Salinero, Cristina Gonzalez-Millán, Javier Portillo, Victor Muñoz, Daniel Juarez, and Juan Del Coso
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeinated energy drink to enhance physical performance in elite junior tennis players. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 14 young (16 ± 1 y) elite-level tennis players ingested 3 mg caffeine per kg body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed a handgrip-strength test, a maximal-velocity serving test, and an 8 × 15-m sprint test and then played a simulated singles match (best of 3 sets). Instantaneous running speed during the matches was assessed using global positioning (GPS) devices. Furthermore, the matches were videotaped and notated afterward. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased handgrip force by ~4.2% ± 7.2% (P = .03) in both hands, the running pace at high intensity (46.7 ± 28.5 vs 63.3 ± 27.7 m/h, P = .02), and the number of sprints (12.1 ± 1.7 vs 13.2 ± 1.7, P = .05) during the simulated match. There was a tendency for increased maximal running velocity during the sprint test (22.3 ± 2.0 vs 22.9 ± 2.1 km/h, P = .07) and higher percentage of points won on service with the caffeinated energy drink (49.7% ± 9.8% vs 56.4% ± 10.0%, P = .07) in comparison with the placebo drink. The energy drink did not improve ball velocity during the serving test (42.6 ± 4.8 vs 42.7 ± 5.0 m/s, P = .49). The preexercise ingestion of caffeinated energy drinks was effective to enhance some aspects of physical performance of elite junior tennis players.