Purpose: To investigate how a physical activity education program based on the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model affected disruptive behaviors in teenagers. Method: A total of 338 students (13–15 years old) from the 672 recruited completed a 4-month TPSR-model-based program during their physical education lessons. Disruptive behavior was recorded through systematic observation. Results: The students from the TPSR-model-based group reduced their violent behaviors (physical aggressions, verbal aggressions, interrupting, and total behaviors) after the intervention, whereas the control group remained the same. Conclusions: The TPSR school-based intervention was efficient in improving coexistence in terms of decreasing violent behaviors (physical and verbal aggressions) and undisciplined behaviors (continual interruptions of lessons) in students. The novel approach used to objectively assess emerging behaviors enriched the quality and validity of the quantitative data. Future research should address the use of objective assessment when conducting TPSR-model-based programs.
Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz, Alberto Gómez-Mármol, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela and Javier Courel-Ibáñez
Xabier Muriel, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Victor Cerezuela-Espejo and Jesús G. Pallarés
Purpose: The COVID-19 outbreak has challenged professional athletes’ training and competition routines in a way not seen before. This report aims to inform about the changes in training volume and intensity distribution and their effects on functional performance due to a 7-week home-confinement period in professional road cyclists from a Union Cycliste Internationale Pro Team. Methods: A total of 18 male professional cyclists (mean [SD] age = 24.9 [2.8] y, body mass = 66.5 [5.6] kg, maximal aerobic power = 449  W; 6.8 [0.6] W/kg) were monitored during the 10 weeks before the lockdown (outdoor cycling) and the 7-week lockdown (indoor cycling turbo trainer). Data from the mean maximal power output (in watts per kilogram) produced during the best 5-minute and best 20-minute records and the training intensity distributions (weekly volumes at power-based training zones) were collected from WKO5 software. Results: Total training volume decreased 33.9% during the lockdown (P < .01). Weekly volumes by standardized zones (Z1 to Z6) declined between 25.8% and 52.2% (effect size from 0.83 to 1.57), except for Z2 (P = .38). There were large reductions in best 5-minute and best 20-minute performance (effect size > 1.36; P < .001) with losses between 1% and 19% in all the cyclists. Conclusions: Total indoor volumes of 12 hours per week, with 6 hours per week at low intensity (Z1 and Z2) and 2 hours per week at high intensity over the threshold (Z5 and Z6), were insufficient to maintain performance in elite road cyclists during the COVID-19 lockdown. Such performance declines should be considered to enable a safe and effective return to competition.