The purpose of the present study was to compare the utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in predicting the exercise intentions and behavior of corporate employees. Corporate employees (/7=332) who completed two questionnaires served as subjects. The first questionnaire assessed intentions, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived control with respect to participating in regular, vigorous physical activity. Participants also completed a follow-up questionnaire 4 weeks later that assessed self-reported frequency of vigorous physical activity during those 4 weeks. Hierarchical-regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioral control (the critical variable in the theory of planned behavior) accounted for a significant portion of the variance in intentions and self-reported exercise behavior, above that accounted for by reasoned action. These results lend support to Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, which suggests that individuals' perceptions of control are most important when attempting behaviors that are not completely under volitional control.
Predicting Vigorous Physical Activity of Corporate Employees: Comparing the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior
Coaching Psychology: The Case of James “Doc” Counsilman
Jay Kimiecik and Daniel Gould
Commentary on Dzewaltowski's Commentary
Jay C. Kimiecik
Sport Psychology in the German Democratic Republic: An Interview with Dr. Gerd Konzag
Glyn C. Roberts and Jay C. Kimiecik
What Is Enjoyment? A Conceptual/Definitional Analysis with Implications for Sport and Exercise Psychology
Jay C. Kimiecik and Amy T. Harris
It has been suggested that enjoyment is a key construct for understanding and explaining the motivation and experiences of sport and exercise participants (Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). In this paper, definitions of enjoyment used by sport and exercise psychology researchers are reviewed, and the conceptual and measurement implications for the study of sport and exercise experiences are discussed. In many studies investigating enjoyment, researchers have not adequately defined the construct. Also, there are possible limitations with proposed definitions of enjoyment (e.g., Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). One possible way of addressing these limitations is to conceptualize and define enjoyment as flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993). To support this enjoyment-equals-flow contention, enjoyment/flow is compared with other related constructs: affect, attitude, pleasure, and intrinsic motivation. Implications of the suggested definition of enjoyment as flow for past and present enjoyment research in sport and exercise psychology are discussed.
Parental Influence on Children’s Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Participation: An Expectancy-Value Approach
Jill M. Dempsey, Jay C. Kimiecik, and Thelma S. Horn
This investigation examined parental influence on children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation via an expectancy-value model that included parents’ behavior, parents’ beliefs about their children’s MVPA, and children’s beliefs about their MVPA. The influence of parents on their children’s MVPA was investigated via questionnaires tapping the belief systems of fourth- and fifth-grade children (n=71) and their parents (n=69). Self-reported MVPA was assessed for parents and children. Correlational analyses demonstrated a number of significant relationships between parents’ belief systems and children’s MVPA behavior and children’s belief systems and their physical activity participation. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, there was no evidence of a positive relationship between parents’ physical activity behavior (role modeling) and children’s physical activity behavior. Parents’ perceptions of their children’s MVPA competence was the only parent belief system variable related to children’s MVPA participation. In addition, children’s task orientation and expectancies significantly predicted their MVPA participation.
Psychological Correlates of Flow in Sport
Susan A. Jackson, Stephen K. Ford, Jay C. Kimiecik, and Herbert W. Marsh
The purpose of this study was to examine possible psychological correlates of flow in a sample of older athletes. Both state and trait, or dispositional flow states, were examined. Masters athletes completed questionnaire assessments on two occasions while competing at an international masters sport competition. The participants (398) completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, goal orientation, trait anxiety, perceived ability, and typical flow experiences (trait) when participating in sport. Of these participants, 213 completed a questionnaire after and in relation to one event they competed in at the Games. This second questionnaire assessed state flow, as well as perceptions of success, skills, and challenges in a selected sport event. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine psychological correlates of state and trait flow. Patterns of relationships were found between flow and perceived ability, anxiety, and an intrinsic motivation variable. Understanding flow and its relationship with other psychological variables are discussed.