The purpose of this study was to identify what and how preservice teachers observe when peer coaching during an early field experience. Twenty-three male and 14 female preservice teachers trained in peer coaching participated in the study. Coaches observed a peer partner teach five 40-min lessons to small groups of elementary or junior high school students in a semester-long second practicum experience. During observation, coaches completed a Peer Coaching Form that included a praise statement and observation notes. A total of 169 Peer Coaching Forms containing 946 statements were collected and analyzed using traditional, naturalistic methods of inductive analysis. Three themes emerged: (a) systematic observation, (b) theory to practice, and (c) students as individuals. Observation changes occurring across the semester suggest peer coaching needs to occur over an extended period of time emphasizing the role of coach as observer for optimal teacher knowledge development.
Preservice Teacher Observations in Peer Coaching
Jayne M. Jenkins, Alex Garn, and Patience Jenkins
Preservice Teachers’ PCK Development during Peer Coaching
Jayne M. Jenkins and Mary Lou Veal
Peer coaching has recently been incorporated into teacher training programs in order to help novice teachers learn theory and incorporate teaching skills, models, and methods into the classroom. Although recent research on peer coaching has identified an increase in the reflective practice of preservice teachers (PTs), few researchers have examined how teacher knowledge develops in the coaching experience. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of knowledge exhibited by 8 PTs during coaching activities, and how the roles of teacher and coach contributed to knowledge development during an elementary physical education field-based methods course. Data collection included observations, postlesson conferences, and daily written reports. Results revealed that pedagogical content knowing (PCKg) developed differently in the roles of teacher and coach. Growth in the teaching role resulted initially from interaction of two knowledge components (i.e., students and pedagogy), and later from interaction of three or more components (subject matter, environmental context, and general pedagogical knowledge).
Influence of Sport Education on Group Cohesion in University Physical Education
Jayne M. Jenkins and Brandon L. Alderman
The Sport Education (SE) curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study’s purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within SE, and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants included 430 students enrolled in 25 BIP classes delivered in SE. A mixed method design included multiple data collection: critical incident, interview, and Physical Activity Group Environmental Questionnaire (PAGEQ). Lifetime skill and competitive sport class participants reflected more group cohesion than exercise class participants. Exercise class participants reported lower task cohesion than other groups, p < .05. Sport participants reported higher social cohesion than lifetime skill participants, whose responses were higher than exercise participants, ps<.05. Findings from critical incident and interview data provided further support for the PAGEQ results. We suggest that exercise classes may not spontaneously lend themselves to cohesion; thus, teachers need to be more creative in designing SE for exercise classes to increase cohesion.
Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences
Casey Ingersoll, Jayne M. Jenkins, and Karen Lux
Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to produce pedagogical content knowledge longitudinally across three semesters of EFE. Specifically, what knowledge components emerge first and continue to emerge in EFE, and what knowledge components initially, then later, interact to develop pedagogical content knowing? The participant, a 21-year-old male, engaged in three consecutive semesters of EFE. Data collection, including multiple observations and interviews, was analyzed jointly by three researchers using constant comparison and inductive analysis. Knowledge of pedagogy emerged initially and throughout the EFEs. In later EFEs, knowledge of students and content emerged concomitantly, interacting with pedagogical knowledge. Suggestions include scheduling longer units of instruction during EFEs and reteaching specific units.
Change in Parental Influence on Children’s Physical Activity Over Time
Brandon L. Alderman, Tami B. Benham-Deal, and Jayne M. Jenkins
Parents are believed to play a pivotal role in their children’s health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA). It is currently unclear, however, at what developmental period parental socialization has the strongest influence on child and/or adolescent PA levels. The purpose of this study was to take a developmental approach to examine parental influence on children’s PA levels over time.
Parents (N = 70; 68 mothers) completed a questionnaire assessing PA habits, amount of time they engage in PA with their child, and reasons for their child’s PA participation at baseline (during child’s preschool years) and at follow-up, which occurred from 1 to 9 years later.
The results indicate that the relationship between parents’ and children’s physical activity patterns and parents’ reasons for their children’s participation in organized physical activity change over time. Parents also reported spending approximately 60 min per week engaged in physical activity together with their children at baseline compared with 40 min at follow-up.
These findings help to extend previous research examining parental influences on children’s physical activity participation.
Internship Management, Placement, and On-Site Visits in Kinesiology
Edward Hebert, Ralph Wood, Jayne M. Jenkins, and Charles E. Robison
Internship experiences are currently embedded in a multitude of academic programs to provide students a more seamless transition from university to the professional setting. Research in a variety of academic fields (e.g., business, sport marketing, public health) reveals that internships enhance students’ professional knowledge and skills as well as increase opportunities for employment. Students studying kinesiology intend to enter a variety of professions (e.g., preprofessional, fitness development, physical education teaching), and departments frequently offer students multiple opportunities to engage in field-based learning experiences (FBLEs). As kinesiology programs have evolved to provide several degree programs and grown in the number of students serviced, challenges in managing the internship program have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to share the experiences of three university kinesiology departments in regard to internship management, placement, and site visits.