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Sport Policy and the Welfare State: An Outline of the Canadian Case

Jean Harvey

This paper assesses the development of the welfare state as an important factor in state intervention in sport. In the first section, a set of theoretical assumptions for the analysis of the welfare state is developed. The second section presents a typology of tools of state intervention in sport inspired by welfare statism. In the last section an analysis of the Canadian case is presented. The paper indicates the broad impact of the welfare state on sport policies as well as demonstrating the need for more empirical studies.

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La Division Des Loisirs Du Conseil Canadien Du Bien-Être (1934-1958), Les Travailleurs Sociaux Et La Constitution Du Champ Sportif Canadien

Jean Harvey and Christine Dallaire

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Fostering Interorganizational Linkages in the Canadian Sport Delivery System

Lucie Thibault and Jean Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of interorganizational linkages between the partners involved in Canada's sport delivery system. Given the changes in the economic context of the 1990s and the ensuing fiscal restraints exercised by both government and the private sector, amateur sport organizations are in a period of high uncertainty. In order to deal with this uncertainty, links between organizations like governments, nonprofit sport organizations, and private sector organizations need to be established, fostered, and maintained. Organizations need to collaborate with each other in order to fulfill their objectives. Linkages between organizations will assist in the sharing of resources and in the coordination of work-related activities. In the paper, a number of examples of existing links between governments, nonprofit organizations, and private organizations are presented. Based on resource dependency theory, strategies such as contracts, joint ventures, and co-optation for establishing new interorganizational linkages are discussed. As well, related issues such as power struggles, loss of autonomy, asymmetrical relationships, and conflicting loyalties are addressed and discussed. Questions for future research also are proposed.

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Sport, World Economy, Global Culture, and New Social Movements

Jean Harvey and François Houle

This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on sport and globalization. In the first section of the paper major elements of the current debate are presented. The second section discusses the current literature on globalization and its related processes. Four elements are discussed in this section: the global economy, communications, new social movements, and the question of identity/culture. The third section comments on sport and key issues of the debate on globalization in light of the discussion in the previous section. An emphasis is put on the interrelationships between sport and new social movements.

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Sociology of Sport in “La Francophonie”

Edited by Jean Harvey and Geneviève Rail

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Body at Work: Michel Foucault and the Sociology of Sport

Geneviève Rail and Jean Harvey

This paper is an introduction to the topic of Michel Foucault and the sociology of sport. First, we discuss the concepts used in the works of Foucault that have had the greatest impact in sociology of sport. Second, we present a brief review of the important articles in sociology of sport that have been inspired by Foucault’s approach. This exercise allows us to provide indices of the influence of the Foucauldian perspective on the sociology of sport: directly, by allowing us to situate the body at the center of research questions, or indirectly, in the context of the development and use of contemporary social theories.

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Alterglobalization, Global Social Movements, and the Possibility of Political Transformation through Sport

Jean Harvey, John Horne, and Parissa Safai

Alterglobalization is the name for a large spectrum of global social movements that present themselves as supporting new forms of globalization, urging that values of democracy, justice, environmental protection, and human rights be put ahead of purely economic concerns. This article develops a framework for the study of the influence of alterglobalization on sport by: outlining a periodization of social movements and sport; proposing a typology of responses to the politics of globalization; and proposing a typology of recent social movements associated with sport. The article does not report on an empirical research project, but provides a stock take of what has happened since the 1990s regarding the politics of globalization and the politics of sport, with specific reference to global social movements. The questions raised in this article include: What form do the movements challenging the world sports order today take? Does an alterglobalization movement exist in sport? What alternative models of sport do they propose?

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Sporting Goods Trade, International Division of Labor, and the Unequal Hierarchy of Nations

Jean Harvey and Maurice Saint-Germain

The main goal of this paper is to provide an analysis of the evolution of the international division of labor with regard to the sporting goods sector. Its purpose is also to assess which of the current dominant critical theories of the international division of labor most accurately describes the trends in the sporting goods sector. The first proposition examined here is that none of the current dominant critical theories of the international division of labor describes appropriately the trends of the last 20 years in sporting goods trade. The second proposition is that the evolution of the international division of labor in the sporting goods sector shows two trends that on the surface may appear contradictory: a regionalization, as well as a globalization of sporting goods trade. Twenty-eight countries were selected for the study. Data support both propositions. The paper ends with suggestions for further studies.

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North American Professional Team Sport Franchises Ownership Patterns and Global Entertainment Conglomerates

Jean Harvey, Alan Law, and Michael Cantelon

This paper maps the current ownership patterns of North American major professional sports franchises in order to assess the extent to which they are interconnected with media/entertainment conglomerates. First, the 120 franchises are classified according to owner’s industrial sector. Second, five models of linkages between franchises and media/entertainment corporations are followed by case studies representative of each. The paper concludes that indeed empirical evidence supports the alleged increasing control of North American pro sport franchises by large media/entertainment conglomerates. However, the paper also demonstrates that the phenomenon involves much more diversity than the major conglomerates commonly identified in the current literature. Finally, the paper discusses the impacts of this trend on sport, as well as on fans.

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Sport Volunteerism and Social Capital

Jean Harvey, Maurice Lévesque, and Peter Donnelly

This study focuses on the relationship between sport volunteerism and social capital, defined here as a resource that stems from participation in certain social networks. A position generator and a resources generator were used to measure the social capital of respondents. Results from this pilot study survey, exploring several aspects of volunteerism in sport in two Canadian communities (one in Québec, the other in Ontario), show a strong relationship between volunteerism in sport and social capital but do not allow a precise measure of the direction of this relationship. Results also show stronger relationships between sport volunteerism and social capital when we control for gender, language, and age.