The vast majority of published research articles on adapted physical education between the years 1930 through 1969 were descriptive in design. During that 39-year span, 63 articles on adapted physical education appeared in Research Quarterly. Other journals that included adapted physical education studies were Training School Bulletin, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, Mental Retardation, Journal of the American Medical Association, Behavior Therapy, American Annals of the Deaf, Comparative Psychological Monographs, American Journal of Psychology, Perceptual and Motor Skills, and Exceptional Children.
Claudine Sherrill and Jean L. Pyfer
Many learning disabled students demonstrate psychological/behavioral and perceptual motor characteristics that affect physical education placement and programming. Among the characteristics exhibited by these students are hyperactivity, disorders of attention, impulsivity, poor self-concept, social imperception, delay in social play development, and deficiencies in body equilibrium, visual motor control, bilateral coordination, repetitive finger movements, and fine motor coordination. Activities found to benefit learning disabled students are jogging, relaxation, highly structured teacher-directed routines, and noncompetitive games, all of which must be carefully sequenced. Testing must be done to determine the type and extent of the learning disabled students’ problems, and activities must be selected on the basis of the results of such tests.
Susan J. Tarr and Jean L. Pyfer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of prenatal drug exposure on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar scores, length of gestation, and motor development (Psychomotor Development Index, PDI) scores. A meta-analytic review was conducted on 56 studies published between 1979 and June 25, 1993. There were 294 effect sizes computed using the means and standard deviations reported in each study. The composite effect sizes calculated for the growth and motor development variables were (a) –.55, p <.01, birth weight; (b) –.74, p < .01, birth length; (c) –.79, p < .01, head circumference; (d) –.45, p < .01, 1-min Apgar score; (e) –.62, p <.01, 5-min Apgar score; (f) –.36, p < .01, length of gestation; (g) –.07, p = .55, PDI score (3 months); (h) –.35, p <.01, PDI score (6 months); (i) –.74, p < .01, PDI score (12 months); (j) –.44, p <.01, PDI score (18 months); and (k) –.23, p <.01, PDI score (24 months). The results of this investigation demonstrated that the use/abuse of illicit substances, alcohol, or both by the mother does significantly affect the physical and motor development of neonates/infants exposed in utero.