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The Postprandial Plasma Amino Acid Response Does Not Differ Following the Ingestion of a Solid Versus a Liquid Milk Protein Product in Healthy Adult Females

Glenn A.A. van Lieshout, Jorn Trommelen, Jean Nyakayiru, Janneau van Kranenburg, Joan M. Senden, Lex B. Verdijk, and Luc J.C. van Loon

Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption rates are modulated by numerous factors such as the food matrix. It has been speculated that protein ingested in liquid form is more rapidly digested and absorbed when compared with ingestion in solid form. Here, we assessed the postprandial plasma amino acid availability following ingestion of a single bolus of protein provided in either liquid or solid form. Twelve healthy, young females were included in this randomized cross-over study. On two separate test days, participants ingested 20-g milk protein concentrate in solid form (protein bar) or in liquid form (protein drink). Products were composed of matched ingredients and, thereby, had the same macro- and micronutrient composition. On both test days, arterialized blood samples were collected at regular time intervals for up to 4 hr following protein ingestion to assess the postprandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations. Protein ingestion robustly elevated circulating plasma amino acid concentrations (p < .001), with no significant differences between treatments (p = .088). The incremental area under the curve of the postprandial rise in total plasma amino acid concentrations did not differ following bar versus drink consumption (160 ± 73 vs. 160 ± 71 mmol·L−1·240 min−1, respectively; 95% confidence interval [−37, 37]; Cohen’s d z  = 0.003; p = .992). Ingestion of protein in liquid or solid form does not modulate postprandial amino acid availability in healthy, female adults. Any differences in protein digestion and amino acid absorption due to differences in food matrix are not attributed to the protein being consumed as a bar or as a drink.

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No Effect of Acute and 6-Day Nitrate Supplementation on VO2 and Time-Trial Performance in Highly Trained Cyclists

Jean M. Nyakayiru, Kristin L. Jonvik, Philippe J.M. Pinckaers, Joan Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Lex B. Verdijk

While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate before exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25 ± 4 y, V̇O2peak 65 ± 4 ml·kg-1·min-1, Wmax 411 ± 35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA). Nitrate was administered as 1097 mg sodium nitrate providing 800 mg (~12.9 mmol) nitrate per day. Three hours after ingestion of the last supplemental bolus, indirect calorimetry was performed while subjects performed 30 min of exercise at 45% Wmax and 30 min at 65% Wmax on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10 km time-trial. Immediately before exercise, plasma [nitrate] and [nitrite] increased to a similar extent during the 6-DAY and 1-DAY trial, but not with PLA (plasma nitrite: 501 ± 205, 553 ± 278, and 239 ± 74 nM, respectively; p < .001). No differences were observed between interventions in V̇O2 during submaximal exercise, or in time to complete the time-trial (6-DAY: 1004 ± 61, 1-DAY: 1022 ± 72, PLA: 1017 ± 71 s; p = .28). We conclude that both acute and 6-days of sodium nitrate supplementation do not alter V̇O2 during submaximal exercise or improve time-trial performance in highly trained cyclists, despite increasing plasma [nitrate] and [nitrite].

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Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes

Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Floris C. Wardenaar, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Lex B. Verdijk

Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2–4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete’s dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75–170] mg/d (range 19–525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p < .001), and strongly correlated with vegetable intake (ρ = 0.78, p < .001). In accordance, most of the dietary nitrate was consumed through vegetables, potatoes and fruit, accounting for 74% of total nitrate intake, with lettuce and spinach contributing most. When corrected for energy intake, nitrate intake was substantially higher in female vs male athletes (12.8[9.2–20.0] vs 9.4[6.2–13.8] mg/MJ; p < .001). This difference was attributed to the higher vegetable intake in female vs male athletes (150[88–236] vs 114[61–183] g/d; p < .001). In conclusion, median daily intake of dietary nitrate in highly trained athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.