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Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga and Jean-Philippe Chaput

Background:

Adolescents are recommended to achieve ≥ 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and ≤2 h/day of screen time (ST). This study examined the relationships between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and adherence to PA and ST recommendations in a large sample of Canadian adolescents.

Methods:

This cross-sectional school-based survey included a representative sample of 9388 students in grades 7 to 12 across Ontario, Canada.

Results:

After adjustment for several confounding variables, results showed that male adolescents who use SNSs for fewer hours (≤ 1 h/day) had greater odds of adherence to PA and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently, while those who use it for more hours (≥ 3 h/day) had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation. Female adolescents who use SNSs for more hours had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation (use of SNSs ≥ 2 h/day) and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently (use of SNSs ≥ 5 h/day).

Conclusions:

Heavy use of SNSs has a negative influence on the adherence to the ST recommendation in both males and females; however, infrequent use of SNSs was related to the adherence to the PA recommendation and concurrent adherence to both recommendations in males only.

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Lucy Kate Lewis, Carol Maher, Kevin Belanger, Mark Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, and Tim Olds

Objectives:

This study investigated associations between weather conditions, physical activity, and sedentary time in primary school-aged children in Australia and Canada.

Methods:

Cross-sectional data on 9–11-year-old children from the Australian (n = 491) and Canadian (n = 524) sites of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment were used. Minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were determined from 7-day, 24-h accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ triaxial accelerometer). Day-matched weather data (temperature, rainfall, snowfall, relative humidity, wind speed) were obtained from the closest weather station to participants’ schools. Covariates included parental highest education level, day type, sex, and BMI z-scores. Generalized mixed model analyses allowing for clustering of participants within schools were completed. Scatterplots with Loess curves were created for maximum temperature, MVPA, and sedentary time.

Results:

Daily maximum temperature was significantly associated with MVPA and sedentary time in Australia (MVPA p = .05, sedentary p = .01) and Canada (p < .001, p = .001). Rainfall was negatively associated with MVPA in Australia (p < .001) and positively associated with sedentary time in Canada (p = .02).

Conclusions:

MVPA and sedentary time appear to be optimal when the maximum temperature ranges between 20°C and 25°C in both countries. The findings have implications for study design and interpretation for surveillance and intervention studies.

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Katya M. Herman, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Catherine M. Sabiston, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Angelo Tremblay, and Gilles Paradis

Objective:

Individuals may achieve high physical activity (PA) yet also be highly sedentary (SED). This study assessed adiposity in children classified by PA/SED groups.

Methods:

Participants were 520 8- to 10-year-old children with ≥ 1 obese parent. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED were measured by accelerometer, and screen-time was measured by self-report. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), and VO2peak were objectively measured; energy intake was measured by dietary recall. Elevated adiposity was defined as BMI ≥ 85th percentile, WC ≥ 90th percentile, BF% ≥ 85th percentile, or waist-to-height ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.5.

Results:

Up to 27% of boys and 15% of girls were active/SED. Adiposity was lowest for active/non-SED, highest for inactive/SED, and intermediate and similar for active/SED and inactive/non-SED. Using 60 min/d MVPA and 2 h/d screen-time cut-offs, prevalence ranges for elevated adiposity in the active/non-SED, active/SED, inactive/non-SED, and inactive/SED groups were 0% to 14%, 15% to 44%, 16% to 40%, and 32% to 51%, respectively. Corresponding odds and 95% confidence intervals of being overweight/obese for the latter groups were 3.8 (95% CI, 1.7−8.4), 3.8 (1.8−8.2), and 4.9 (2.3−10.3) versus active/non-SED. PA/SED-adiposity associations were mediated by fitness but not energy intake.

Conclusions:

Combined PA/SED levels are strongly associated with adiposity in children, but associations are mediated by fitness. Active children who accumulate >2 h/d of screen time and inactive children are equally likely to be overweight/obese.

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Diana M. Camargo-Lemos, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: Global estimates have shown that a small proportion of children and adolescents are physically active. However, the evidence on physical activity (PA) among Colombian children and adolescents is limited. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and correlates of meeting PA guidelines among Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: Data were collected as part of the National Survey of Nutrition 2015. A national sample of 16,612 children and adolescents (3–17 y) was included. Prevalence estimates of meeting PA and active play guidelines were calculated, and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify correlates of PA. Results: Low proportion of Colombian children and adolescents met the PA guidelines. Low engagement in active play was observed among preschoolers. Correlates varied by age group. Female sex was a consistent negative correlate of meeting PA guidelines across all age groups. Conclusions: Urgent actions are needed to promote active play and PA among Colombian children and adolescents. The correlates identified in our study can help inform the development of actions to overcome the disparities and provide opportunities for children to achieve their full potential for healthy growth and development.

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Richard Larouche, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: In Colombia, active transportation has been assessed in multiple local and regional studies, but national data on active transportation are scarce. This study aims to describe the prevalence and factors associated with active transportation to/from school among Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: The authors analyzed nationally representative data from the National Survey of Nutrition 2015, with a sample of 11,466 children and adolescents aged between 3 and 17 years. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression multivariable models with robust variance. Results: Approximately 70% of Colombian children and adolescents reported engaging in active transportation to/from school over the last week. There were no differences by sex among preschoolers nor school-aged children. Fewer adolescent females than males used active transportation. Preschoolers and school-aged children living in Bogota were more likely to report active transport than children from other regions (prevalence ratios for other regions ranged from 0.59 to 0.86). School-aged children and adolescents with a lower wealth index were more likely to use active transportation than their counterparts (prevalence ratios = 1.32 and 1.22, respectively). Conclusions: The wealthiest children and adolescents, adolescents from rural areas, and female adolescents should be a focus for future interventions. Actions need to be implemented to improve the involvement in active transportation to/from school in Colombia.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin, and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.

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David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz

Background: While mental work has been shown to favor overconsumption, the present study compared the effect of a cognitive task alone, followed by acute exercise, or performed on a cycling desk, on short-term food intake and appetite in adults. Methods: A total of 19 normal-weight adults randomly completed: resting session (CON), 30-minute cognitive task (CT), 30-minute cognitive task followed by a 15-minute high-intensity interval exercise bout (CT–EX), and 30-minute cognitive task performed on a cycling desk (CT-CD). Energy expenditure was estimated (heart rate–workload relationship), and energy intake (EI; ad libitum) and appetite (visual analog scales) were assessed. Results: Energy expenditure was higher in CT-EX (P < .001) compared with the other conditions and in CT-CD compared with CON and CT (P < .01). EI was higher in CON (P < .05) and CT-CD compared with CT (P < .01). Relative EI was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and lower in CT-EX compared with CT, CT-CD, and CON (all Ps < .001). Area under the curve desire to eat was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and CT-EX (P < .01). Area under the curve prospective food consumption was higher in CON compared with CT-EX (P < .01). Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions. Conclusion: While cycling desks are recommended to break up sedentary time, the induced increase in energy expenditure might not be enough to significantly reduce overall short-term relative EI after mental work.

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Casey E. Gray, Joel D. Barnes, Jennifer Cowie Bonne, Christine Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy Faulkner, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Angela M. Kolen, Stephen R. Manske, Art Salmon, John C. Spence, Brian W. Timmons, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how Canada is being responsible in providing physical activity opportunities for children (3- to 11-years-old) and youth (12- to 17-years-old). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2014 AHKC 10th Anniversary Report Card.

Methods:

Ten physical activity indicators were graded using the AHKC Report Card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus.

Results:

Grades assigned were for: ‘Behaviors that Contribute to Overall Physical Activity Levels’ (Overall Physical Activity Levels, D-; Organized Sport Participation, C+; Active Play, INCOMPLETE; Active Transportation, D; Sedentary Behaviors, F), ‘Settings and Sources of Influence’ (Family and Peers, C; School, C+; and Community and the Built Environment, B+), and ‘Strategies and Investments’ (Government Strategies and Investments, C; and Non-Government Strategies and Investments, A-).

Conclusions:

Despite good availability of policies, programs, and infrastructure, the overall physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth remain low while sedentary behavior levels remain high. As with many nations, there is room for improvement in most physical activity behaviors and some sources of influence.

Open access

Soultana Macridis, Christine Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Tala Chulak-Bozzer, Patricia Clark, Margie H. Davenport, Guy Faulkner, Jonathon Fowles, Lucie Lévesque, Michelle M. Porter, Ryan E. Rhodes, Robert Ross, Elaine Shelton, John C. Spence, Leigh M. Vanderloo, and Nora Johnston

Background: The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Adults is a knowledge exchange tool representing a synthesis of the literature and data available at the national level. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the inaugural 2019 edition. Methods: Thirteen physical activity indicators, grouped into 4 categories, were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content. Results: Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (overall physical activity: D; daily movement: C; moderate to vigorous physical activity: F; muscle and bone strength: INC; balance: INC; sedentary behavior: INC; sleep: B−), Individual Characteristics (intentions: B+), Settings and Sources of Influence (social support: INC; workplace: INC; community and environment: B−; health and primary care settings: C−), and Strategies and Investments (government: B−). Conclusions: Generally, lower grades were given to behavior-related indicators (eg, overall physical activity) and better grades for indicators related to investments, community supports, and strategies and policies. Research gaps and future recommendations and directions are identified for each indicator to support future practice, policy, and research directions.

Open access

Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Allana G. LeBlanc, John C. Spence, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the most comprehensive assessment of child and youth physical activity in Canada and provides an update or “state of the nation” that assesses how Canada is doing at promoting and facilitating physical activity opportunities for children and youth. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card.

Methods:

Twelve physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.

Results:

Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity: D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation: B; Active Play: D+; Active Transportation: D; Physical Literacy: D+; Sleep: B; Sedentary Behaviors: F), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C+; School: B; Community and Environment: A-), and Strategies and Investments (Government: B-; Nongovernment: A-).

Conclusions:

Similar to previous years of the Report Card, Canada generally received good grades for indicators relating to investment, infrastructure, strategies, policies, and programming, and poor grades for behavioral indicators (eg, Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors).