To examine whether the volume of previous exercise training in older athletes influences inflammatory, redox, and hormonal profiles, 40 trained marathon runners were divided into higher-volume (HVG, ∼480 min/week) and lower-volume groups (LVG, ∼240 min/week). Plasma inflammatory proteins, redox biomarkers, salivary testosterone, and cortisol were assessed at restand following two maximal acute exercise bouts. At rest, the LVG exhibited higher CRP, higher protein carbonyls, and lower SOD activity compared to the HVG (p’s < .05). In response to exercise, TNF-α declined similarly in both groups whereas CRP increased differentially (+60% LVG; +24% HVG; p’s < .05). Protein carbonyls decreased and thiols increased similarly in both groups, but SOD declined differentially between groups (−14% LVG; −20% HVG; p’s < .05). Salivary testosterone decreased similarly in both groups, whereas cortisol did not change. A higher volume of training is associated with favorable inflammatory and redox profiles at rest, perhaps mediated by small inflammatory responses to acute exercise.
André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer
Michelle S.M. Silva, Wladimir Bolani, Cleber R. Alves, Diogo G. Biagi, José R. Lemos Jr, Jeferson L. da Silva, Patrícia A. de Oliveira, Guilherme B. Alves, Edilamar M. de Oliveira, Carlos E. Negrão, José E. Krieger, Rodrigo G. Dias and Alexandre C. Pereira
To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training.
Police recruits (N = 206, 25 ± 4 y) with RR (n = 75), RX (n = 97), and XX (n = 33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing.
Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P < .003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P < 2 × 10−6), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P = .04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P = .02).
ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.