The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe key research contributions that have shaped the field of adapted physical activity. That was not an easy task as the area of adapted physical activity is relatively new. The field is also quite broad and has been influenced by many people and sociopolitical influences. In an effort to constrain the scope of influences, this paper will focus on studies related to motor performance and health-related physical fitness of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). This was done in part because that is an area where I believe that my work and that of students and colleagues at Oregon State University, helped to contribute small fraction of what is known and in a way to help substantiate how much more there is to know. It is challenging to answer the questions of whose work significantly influenced what we now know about the health and fitness status of persons with ID. And more importantly what direction does this area of research need to go for us to change health related outcomes of this group?
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Manny Felix, Jeff McCubbin, and Janet Shaw
Many women with mild to moderate mental retardation (MMR) exhibit low levels of physical activity, muscle strength, and muscle mass, which place these individuals at risk for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD), the primary index of osteoporosis, of the femoral neck and the whole body was measured in premenopausal women with (M age = 28.14 ± 8.43) and without (M age = 29.64 ± 10.86) mental retardation (MMR and NMR, respectively). Multivariate analyses revealed no differences (p > .05) between groups (MMR = 16, NMR = 16) for BMD values. Significant differences existed (p < .05) between groups on body composition and muscle strength variables. In the MMR group, significant positive relationships (p < .05) were found between lean muscle mass and both femoral neck (r = .74) and whole body (r = .81) BMD. Unaccounted lifestyle factors may have contributed to nonsignificant BMD values between groups.
Leona Holland, Jeff McCubbin, Ewen Nelson, and Robert Steadward
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of eccentric and concentric strength of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) as measured on the Kin-Corn. Fourteen subjects performed four eccentric and concentric contractions of shoulder adduction and abduction, and knee flexion and extension at a speed of 60°/s during three testing sessions. Peak and average torque were calculated for each type of contraction for each of the four movements. Generalizability coefficients were high for all scores (r = .79 to .96) except average eccentric extension of the knee (r = .26). The variance components revealed that differences between test sessions were large (8.5%–65.8%) compared to the differences between trials (0.0%–5.8%). These data indicate that the Kin-Corn is a reliable mode for testing average and maximal concentric muscular strength, and maximal eccentric contractions on adults with CP, following an initial orientation session.
Lauren J. Lieberman, John M. Dunn, Hans Van der Mars, and Jeff McCubbin
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of trained peer tutors on the physical activity levels of deaf students1 in inclusive elementary physical education classes. A single subject delayed multiple baseline design across 8 deaf participants (4 boys and 4 girls) ages 10 to 12 was used. Eight typically developing, trained peers of the same age and gender served as peer tutors following training in use of sign language and basic teaching strategies. The dependent variable was moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) determined by McKenzie, Sallis and Nader’s (1991) System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). The study included 3–4 sessions of baseline, 11–14 sessions of intervention, and 1–3 sessions of maintenance. Results revealed that after the introduction of peer tutoring, deaf students increased their MVPA from to 22% to 41.5%, and peer tutors increased their MVPA from 19% to 37.9%.