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Jeffery L. Huston

Youth sports teach lessons of teamwork, perseverance, and competition. The unique aspects of youth sports provide constraints that occur with the interaction between participants, coaches, parents, and medical professionals. Ethical dimensions arise out of the nature of the interaction between adults and youth that can build upon the inherent benefits of youth sports participation or reinforce the worst aspects of participation. Parents and coaches play a particular role in dealing with the development of youth athletes, while medical professionals must understand that the relationship between the patient and clinician and the expectation of the social contract is changed through the dynamics of the triadic nature of healthcare in youth sports.

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Jeffery L. Huston, Michelle A. Sandrey, Mathew W. Lively and Kevin Kotsko


There is limited information on the effect of dynamic fatiguing of the plantar flexors on joint-position sense (JPS).


To examine the effects of fatigue on JPS for ankle plantar flexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF).


A 2 × 2 factorial design.


Research laboratory.


20 healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women; age 21.75 ± 1.48 years).


The subjects were tested at 10° DF and 20° PF in the nonfatigued and fatigued conditions on a custom-built JPS device. To induce fatigue, subjects stood with both feet in the plantar-flexed position until they could no longer hold the posture.

Main Outcome Measures:

JPS absolute error was measured at 10° DF and 20° PF.


There was no significant main effect for condition, measurement, or interaction between condition and measurement.


With no difference between conditions, the main controller of conscious JPS of the lower extremity might be the tibialis anterior.