Arrest and conviction rates, for male collegiate and professional athletes accused of felony sexual assault against women are compared with national crime data to determine whether elite athletes receive preferential treatment by the criminal justice system. The research is based on 217 criminal complaints against athletes filed with police between 1986 and 1995. The findings indicate that allegations of sexual assault involving collegiate or professional athletes are far more likely to result in an arrest and in an indictment. Nonetheless, athletes are significantly less likely to be convicted.
Jeffrey Benedict and Alan Klein
Marcia A. Chan, Alexander J. Koch, Stephen H. Benedict, and Jeffrey A. Potteiger
The effect of carbohydrate supplementation (CHO) on interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) secretion following acute resistance exercise was examined in 9 resistance-trained males. Subjects completed a randomized, double-blind protocol with exercise separated by 14 days. The exercise consisted of a high intensity, short rest interval squat workout. Subjects consumed 1.0 g · kg body mass-1 CHO or an equal volume of placebo (PLC) 10 min prior to and 10 min following exercise. Blood was collected at rest (REST), immediately post exercise (POST), and at 1.5 h of recovery (1.5 h POST). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with PHA and assayed for IL-2 and IL-5 secretion. IL-2 secretion was significantly decreased at POST for both the PLC and CHO groups. However, the degree of decrease was less in the CHO group (16%) than in the PLC group (48%), and this difference was statistically significant. These responses were transient, and the values returned to normal by 1.5 h POST. A mild and transient but significant decrease in IL-5 secretion by the PLC group was observed at POST (26%) compared to REST. No significant decrease was observed in IL-5 secretion for CHO from REST to POST (12%). These data support a possible effect of carbohydrate supplementation on IL-2 and IL-5 secretion following high-intensity resistance exercise.
Alexander J. Koch, Jeffrey A. Potteiger, Marcia A. Chan, Stephen H. Benedict, and Bruce B. Frey
The effect of carbohydrate supplementation (CHO) on the lymphocyte response to acute resistance exercise was examined in 10 resistance-trained males. Subjects completed a randomized double-blind protocol with sessions separated by 14 days. The exercise session consisted of a high intensity, short rest interval squat workout. Subjects consumed 1.0 g · kg body mass−1 CHO or an equal volume of placebo (PLC) 10 min prior to and 10 min following exercise. Blood was collected at rest (REST), immediately post exercise (POST), and at 1.5 hours and 4.0 hours of recovery, and analyzed for plasma glucose, serum cortisol, leukocyte subsets, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. A significant Treatment × Time effect was observed for lymphocyte proliferation between CHO and PLC, but post hoc analyses revealed no between-treatment differences at any post-exercise time point. Lymphocyte proliferation was significantly depressed below REST at POST (−39.2% for PLC, −25.7% for CHO). Significant fluctuations in leukocyte subset trafficking were observed for both treatments at POST, 1.5 hours, and 4.0 hours. Plasma glucose was significantly increased POST in CHO compared to PLC. Cortisol was significantly increased from REST to POST in both treatments. These data support a minimal effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the lymphocyte response to high-intensity resistance exercise.
Scott E. Benedict, Jeffrey W. Hinshaw, Ryan Byron-Fields, Harsimran S. Baweja, and Daniel J. Goble
Fatigue has been shown to adversely affect balance results, as measured by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The present study aimed to determine whether a new low-cost force plate for concussion balance assessment, the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS), is subject to similar fatigue effects. Significant fatigue effects were only evident immediately following a fatigue protocol (p > .05), and were fully resolved within 5 min postfatigue. These results suggest that the BTrackS Balance Test (BBT) is more fatigue resistant than the BESS, and support use of the BBT as a potentially more reliable alternative to the BESS during immediate sideline balance testing.