To determine the effect of carbohydrate feeding on muscle glycogen resynthesis, 8 male cyclists pedaled for 2 hrs on a cycle ergometer at 70% of VO2max while consuming either a 10% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a nonnutritive sweet placebo (No CHO). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis prior to, immediately postexercise, and at 2,4, and 24 hrs of recovery. Blood samples were taken before and at the end of exercise, and at specified times during recovery. During both trials food intake was withheld for the first 2 hrs of recovery, but at 2 hrs postexercise a 24% carbohydrate solution was ingested. The rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the first 2 hrs of recovery was similar for the CHO and No CHO trials. Following ingestion of the 24% carbohydrate supplement, the rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis increased similarly in both trials. These similar rates of resynthesis following ingestion of the carbohydrate supplement were obtained despite significantly greater serum glucose and insulin levels during the No CHO trial. The results indicate that the carbohydrate feedings taken during exercise had little effect on postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis.
Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill, and William J. Fink
Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill, Jeffrey J. Widrick, Dawn E. Anderson, and Glenn K. McConell
The intent of this study was to determine whether adding carbonation to either water or a low calorie sport drink would affect gastric emptying (GE). Fifteen subjects rode for 20 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 55% of max
John R. Stofan, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Craig A. Horswill, Robert Murray, Scott A. Anderson, and E. Randy Eichner
This observational study was designed to determine whether football players with a history of heat cramps have elevated fluid and sodium losses during training. During a “two-a-day” training camp, five Division I collegiate football players (20.2 ± 1.6 y, 113 ± 20 kg) with history of heat cramps (C) were matched (weight, age, race and position) with a cohort of teammates (19.6 ± 0.6 y, 110 ± 20 kg) who had never cramped (NC). Change in body weight (adjusted by fluid intake) determined gross sweat loss. Sweat samples (forearm patch) were analyzed for sodium and potassium concentrations. Adlibitum fluid intake was measured by recording pre- and post-practice bottle weights. Average sweat sodium loss for a 2.5-h practice was projected at 5.1 ± 2.3 g (C) vs. 2.2 ± 1.7 g (NC). When averaged across two practices within the day, fluid intake was similar between groups (C: 2.6 ± 0.8 L vs. NC: 2.8 ± 0.7 L), as was gross sweat loss (C: 4.0 ± 1.1 L vs. NC: 3.5 ± 1.6 L). There was wide variability in the fluid deficit incurred for both C and NC (1.3 ± 0.9 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2%) due to fluid intake. Sweat potassium was similar between groups, but sweat sodium was two times higher in C versus NC (54.6 ± 16.2 vs. 25.3 ± 10.0 mmol/L). These data indicate that sweat sodium losses were comparatively larger in cramp-prone football players than in NC. Although both groups consumed sodium-containing fluids (on-field) and food (off-field), both appeared to experience an acute sodium deficit at the end of practices based on sweat sodium losses. Large acute sodium and fluid losses (in sweat) may be characteristic of football players with a history of heat cramping.
Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill, Glenn C. Beard, Robert A. Robergs, David D. Pascoe, and Dawn E. Anderson
To determine the effect of a carbonated carbohydrate (CHO) drink on gastric function and exercise performance, eight male cyclists completed four 120- min bouts of cycling. Each bout consisted of a 105-min ride at 70%
Xiaocai Shi, Mary K. Horn, Kris L. Osterberg, John R. Stofan,, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Craig A. Horswill, Dennis H. Passe, and Robert Murray
This study investigated whether different beverage carbohydrate concentration and osmolality would provoke gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort during intermittent, high-intensity exercise. Thirty-six adult and adolescent athletes were tested on separate days in a double-blind, randomized trial of 6% and 8% carbohydrate-electrolytes (CHO-E) beverages during four 12-min quarters (Q) of circuit training that included intermittent sprints, lateral hops, shuttle runs, and vertical jumps. GI discomfort and fatigue surveys were completed before the first Q and immediately after each Q. All ratings of GI discomfort were modest throughout the study. The cumulative index for GI discomfort, however, was greater for the 8% CHO-E beverage than for the 6% CHO-E beverage at Q3 and Q4 (P < 0.05). Averaging across all 4 quarters, the 8% CHO-E treatment produced significantly higher mean ratings of stomach upset and side ache. In conclusion, higher CHO concentration and osmolality in an ingested beverage provokes stomach upset and side ache.