The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of load on the power-, force- and velocity-time curves during the jump squat. The analysis of these curves for the entire movement at a sampling frequency of 200–500 Hz averaged across 18 untrained male subjects is the most novel aspect of this study. Jump squat performance was assessed in a randomized fashion across five different external loads: 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg (equivalent to 0 ± 0, 18 ± 4, 37 ± 8, 55 ± 12, 74 ± 15% of 1RM, respectively). The 0-kg loading condition (i.e., body mass only) was the load that maximized peak power output, displaying a significantly (p ≤ .05) greater value than the 40, 60, and 80 kg loads. The shape of the force-, power-, and velocity-time curves changed significantly as the load applied to the jump squat increased. There was a significantly greater rate of power development in the 0 kg load in comparison with all other loads examined. As the first comprehensive illustration of how the entire power-, force-, and velocity-time curves change across various loading conditions, this study provides extensive evidence that a load equaling an individuals body mass (i.e., external load = 0 kg) maximizes power output in untrained individuals during the jump squat.
Prue Cormie, Jeffrey M. McBride and Grant O. McCaulley
Prue Cormie, Jeffrey M. McBride and Grant O. McCaulley
The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of power measurement techniques utilizing various kinematic and kinetic devices during the jump squat (JS), squat (S) and power clean (PC). Ten Division I male athletes were assessed for power output across various intensities: 0, 12, 27, 42, 56, 71, and 85% of one repetition maximum strength (1RM) in the JS and S and 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM in the PC. During the execution of each lift, six different data collection systems were utilized; (1) one linear position transducer (1-LPT); (2) one linear position transducer with the system mass representing the force (1-LPT+MASS); (3) two linear position transducers (2-LPT); (4) the force plate (FP); (5) one linear position transducer and a force plate (1-LPT+FP); (6) two linear position transducers and a force place (2-LPT+FP). Kinetic and kinematic variables calculated using the six methodologies were compared. Vertical power, force, and velocity differed significantly between 2-LPT+FP and 1-LPT, 1-LPT+MASS, 2-LPT, and FP methodologies across various intensities throughout the JS, S, and PC. These differences affected the load–power relationship and resulted in the transfer of the optimal load to a number of different intensities. This examination clearly indicates that data collection and analysis procedures influence the power output calculated as well as the load–power relationship of dynamic lower body movements.
Tyler J. Kirby, Jeffrey M. McBride, Tracie L. Haines and Andrea M. Dayne
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between relative net vertical impulse and jump height in a countermovement jump and static jump performed to varying squat depths. Ten college-aged males with 2 years of jumping experience participated in this investigation (age: 23.3 ± 1.5 years; height: 176.7 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 84.4 ± 10.1 kg). Subjects performed a series of static jumps and countermovement jumps in a randomized fashion to a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 m and a self-selected depth (static jump depth = 0.38 ± 0.08 m, countermovement jump depth = 0.49 ± 0.06 m). During the concentric phase of each jump, peak force, peak velocity, peak power, jump height, and net vertical impulse were recorded and analyzed. Net vertical impulse was divided by body mass to produce relative net vertical impulse. Increasing squat depth corresponded to a decrease in peak force and an increase in jump height and relative net vertical impulse for both static jump and countermovement jump. Across all depths, relative net vertical impulse was statistically significantly correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = .9337, p < .0001, power = 1.000) and countermovement jump (r = .925, p < .0001, power = 1.000). Across all depths, peak force was negatively correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = –0.3947, p = .0018, power = 0.8831) and countermovement jump (r = –0.4080, p = .0012, power = 0.9050). These results indicate that relative net vertical impulse can be used to assess vertical jump performance, regardless of initial squat depth, and that peak force may not be the best measure to assess vertical jump performance.
Jeffrey M. McBride, Tony R. Larkin, Andrea M. Dayne, Tracie L. Haines and Tyler J. Kirby
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of stable and unstable conditions on one repetition maximum strength and muscle activity during dynamic squatting using absolute and relative loading.
Ten recreationally weight-trained males participated in this study (age = 24.1 ± 2.0 y, height = 178.0 ± 5.6 cm, body mass = 83.7 ± 13.4 kg, 1RM/body mass = 1.53 ± 0.31), which involved two laboratory sessions separated by 1 wk. Linear position transducers were used to track bar displacement while subjects stood on a force plate for all trials. Vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and erector spinae (L1) muscle activity (average integrated EMG [IEMG]) was also recorded during all trials. During the frst session subjects complete a one repetition maximum test in a stable dynamic squat (S1RM = 128.0 ± 31.4 kg) and an unstable dynamic squat (U1RM = 83.8 ± 17.3 kg) in a randomized order with a 30-min rest period between conditions. The second session consisted of the performance of three trials each for 12 different conditions (unstable and stable squats using three different absolute loads [six conditions] and unstable and stable squats using three different relative loads [six conditions]).
Results revealed a statistically significant difference between S1RM and U1RM values (P < .05). The stable trials resulted in the same or a significantly higher value for VL, BF and L1 muscle activity in comparison with the unstable trials for all twelve conditions.
Unstable squatting is of equal or less (depending on the loading condition) benefit to improving or maximizing muscle activity during resistance exercise.
Charles L. Dumke, Christopher M. Pfaffenroth, Jeffrey M. McBride and Grant O. McCauley
In this study, a comparison was made between muscle strength, power and muscle and tendon (km and kt respectively) stiffness of the triceps surae muscle group and running economy (RE) in trained male runners.
Twelve well-trained male runners (age = 21 + 2.7 y, height = 178.1 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 66.7 + 3.2 kg, VO2 max = 68.3 + 4.3 mLkg–1min–1, 5000-m time = 15:04 min:s) underwent passive stiffness testing using a free oscillation method. Muscle strength was determined via a maximal isometric squat test and power determined via a maximal countermovement jump (CMJ). On a separate day, subjects performed an incremental treadmill test and their RE, lactate threshold, and VO2 max were determined. Fingertip blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min stage. Lactate threshold was defined as a nonlinear increase in lactate accumulation.
A statistically significant correlation was found between k m and VO at stage 6 (r = -0.69, P = .01). In addition, statistically significant correlations were observed between CMJ peak force production and VO2 at stage 2 (r = .66, P = .02), stage 3 (r = .70, P = .01), and stage 4 (r = .58, P = .04). No other statistically significant correlations were observed.
These data suggest that greater muscle stiffness and less power are associated with greater RE. Future study in this area should focus on determining the mechanisms behind this relationship and how to best apply them to a running population through training techniques.
James L. Nuzzo, Michael J. Cavill, N. Travis Triplett and Jeffrey M. McBride
The primary purpose of this investigation was to provide a descriptive analysis of lower-body strength and vertical jump performance in overweight male (n = 8) and female (n = 13) adolescents. Maximal strength was tested in the leg press and isometric squat. Kinetic and kinematic variables were assessed in vertical jumps at various loads. When compared with females, males demonstrated significantly greater (p ≤ .05) absolute maximal strength in the leg press. However, when maximal strength was expressed relative to body mass, no significant difference was observed. There were no significant differences between males and females in vertical jump performance at body mass.
Sean R. Schumm, N. Travis Triplett, Jeffrey M. McBride and Charles L. Dumke
This investigation examined the anabolic-hormone response to carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation at rest and after resistance exercise. Nine recreationally trained men randomly underwent 4 testing conditions: rest with placebo (RPL), rest with CHO (RCHO), resistance exercise with placebo (EPL), and resistance exercise with CHO (ECHO). The resistance-exercise protocol was four sets of Smith machine squats with a 10-repetition-maximum load, with 90-s rests between sets. Participants then consumed either a placebo or CHO (24% CHO, 1.5 g/kg) drink. Blood was taken before exercise (Pre), immediately after testing (Post), and then 15 (15P), 30 (30P), and 60 (60P) min after drink ingestion. Blood was analyzed for cortisol, glucose, insulin, and total testosterone (TTST). Cortisol did not change significantly in any condition. Glucose concentrations increased significantly from Pre to 15P and 30P during RCHO and Pre to 15P, 30P, and 60P in ECHO (p ≤&.05). Insulin concentrations increased significantly from Pre to 15P, 30P, and 60P in the RCHO and ECHO conditions (p ≤&.05). There were no significant changes in TTST concentrations during RPL or RCHO. Both EPL and ECHO demonstrated a significant elevation in TTST concentrations from Pre to Post (p ≤&.05). During ECHO, TTST concentrations at 60P were significantly lower than Pre levels (p ≤&.05), but there were no significant treatment differences in TTST concentrations at any time point during the EPL and ECHO conditions. Ingesting CHO after resistance exercise resulted in decreased TTST concentrations during recovery, although the mechanism is unclear.
Paige E. Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K. Merritt and Jeffrey M. McBride
Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress–strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion (MVIP) strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. A total of 10 female collegiate dancers and 10 untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed MVIPs, countermovement hops, and drop hops at 20, 30, and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled. Dancers had greater right and left ultimate fracture load values and significantly (P ≤ .05) greater left leg stress–strain index than controls. Dancers had significantly larger right and left muscle cross-sectional area and MVIP values and hopped significantly higher during all hopping conditions in comparison with controls. Average force–time and power–time curves revealed significantly greater relative force and power measurements during the concentric phase for all hopping conditions in dancers when compared with controls. This investigation provides evidence that dance may be a stimulus for positive muscle and bone adaptations, strength levels, and enhanced SSC capabilities.
Jeffrey M. McBride, Tyler J. Kirby, Tracie L. Haines and Jared Skinner
The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the relationship between relative net vertical impulse (net vertical impulse (VI)) and jump height in the jump squat (JS) going to different squat depths and utilizing various loads.
Ten males with two years of jumping experience participated in this investigation (Age: 21.8 ± 1.9 y; Height: 176.9 ± 5.2 cm; Body Mass: 79.0 ± 7.1 kg, 1RM: 131.8 ± 29.5 kg, 1RM/BM: 1.66 ± 0.27). Subjects performed a series of static jumps (SJS) and countermovement jumps (CMJJS) with various loads (Body Mass, 20% of 1RM, 40% of 1RM) in a randomized fashion to a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 m and a self-selected depth. During the concentric phase of each JS, peak force (PF), peak power (PP), jump height (JH) and relative VI were recorded and analyzed.
Increasing squat depth corresponded to a decrease in PF and an increase in JH, relative VI for both SJS and CMJJS during all loads. Across all squat depths and loading conditions relative VI was statistically significantly correlated to JH in the SJS (r = .8956, P < .0001, power = 1.000) and CMJJS (r = .6007, P < .0001, power = 1.000). Across all squat depths and loading conditions PF was statistically nonsignificantly correlated to JH in the SJS (r = –0.1010, P = .2095, power = 0.2401) and CMJJS (r = –0.0594, P = .4527, power = 0.1131). Across all squat depths and loading conditions peak power (PP) was significantly correlated with JH during both the SJS (r = .6605, P < .0001, power = 1.000) and the CMJJS (r = .6631, P < .0001, power = 1.000). PP was statistically significantly higher at BM in comparison with 20% of 1RM and 40% of 1RM in the SJS and CMJJS across all squat depths.
Results indicate that relative VI and PP can be used to predict JS performance, regardless of squat depth and loading condition. However, relative VI may be the best predictor of JS performance with PF being the worst predictor of JS performance.
Daniel E. Lidstone, Justin A. Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Alan R. Needle, Herman van Werkhoven and Jeffrey M. McBride
Heavy load carriage has been identified as a main contributing factor to the high incidence of overuse injuries in soldiers. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRFMAX) and maximal vertical loading rates (VLRMAX) may increase during heavy prolonged load carriage with the development of muscular fatigue and reduced shock attenuation capabilities. The objectives of the current study were (1) to examine physiological and biomechanical changes that occur during a prolonged heavy load carriage task, and (2) to examine if this task induces neuromuscular fatigue and changes in muscle architecture. Eight inexperienced female participants walked on an instrumented treadmill carrying operational loads for 60 minutes at 5.4 km·h–1. Oxygen consumption (), heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), trunk lean angle, and ground reaction forces were recorded continuously during task. Maximal force and in-vivo muscle architecture were assessed pre- and posttask. Significant increases were observed for VGRFMAX, VLRMAX, trunk lean angle,