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Andrew G Jameson, Stephen J Kinzey, and Jeffrey S Hallam


Cryotherapy is commonly used in the care of acute and chronic injuries. It decreases pain, reduces swelling, and causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels. Its detrimental effects on motor activity might predispose physically active individuals to further injury.


To examine the effects of cryotherapy on vertical-ground-reaction-force (VGRF) during a 2-legged landing from a 2-legged targeted vertical jump.


2 × 4 MANOVA with repeated measures.


Biomechanics laboratory.


10 men, means: 22.40 ± 1.26 years, 76.01 ± 26.95 kg, 182.88 ± 6.88 cm.


VGRF during landing from a targeted vertical jump (90% of maximum) was measured before and after four 20-minute cryotherapy treatments.


There were no significant differences in VGRF as a result of cryotherapy.


Under the constraints of this study there is no evidence that returning to activity immediately after cryotherapy predisposes an athlete to injury because of a change in VGRF.

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M. Renée Umstattd, Stephanie L. Baller, Erin Hennessy, David Hartley, Christina D. Economos, Raymond R. Hyatt, Anush Yousefian, and Jeffrey S. Hallam


Evidence supports the role of physical and social environments in active living, including perception of environment. However, measurement of perceived environments in rural settings is lacking. This study describes the development of the Rural Active Living Perceived Environmental Support Scale (RALPESS).


Premised on social ecological and cognitive perspectives, 85 initial items were generated through a literature review and a mixed-methods investigation of “activity-friendly” environments. Items were organized by resource areas—town center, indoor and outdoor physical activity areas, schools, churches, and areas around the home/neighborhood—and submitted for expert panel review. In 2009, a revised questionnaire was disseminated to adolescents, parents, public school staff, and older adults in 2 rural southeastern United States counties. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to explore factor structure (n = 542).


The final analysis yielded 33 items with 7 factors: 1) church facilities, 2) town center connectivity, 3) indoor areas, 4) around the home/neighborhood, 5) town center physical activity resources, 6) school grounds, and 7) outdoor areas.


The RALPESS is a valid, internally consistent, and practically useful instrument to measure perceptions of rural environments in the context of physical activity across the lifespan. Confirmatory factor analysis is recommended to validate factor structure.