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  • Author: Jeffrey Seegmiller x
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Katrina Taylor, Jeffrey Seegmiller and Chantal A. Vella


To determine whether a decremental protocol could elicit a higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) than an incremental protocol in trained participants. A secondary aim was to examine whether cardiac-output (Q) and stroke-volume (SV) responses differed between decremental and incremental protocols in this sample.


Nineteen runners/triathletes were randomized to either the decremental or incremental group. All participants completed an initial incremental VO2max test on a treadmill, followed by a verification phase. The incremental group completed 2 further incremental tests. The decremental group completed a second VO2max test using the decremental protocol, based on their verification phase. The decremental group then completed a final incremental test. During each test, VO2, ventilation, and heart rate were measured, and cardiac variables were estimated with thoracic bioimpedance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted with an alpha level set at .05.


There were no significant main effects for group (P = .37) or interaction (P = .10) over time (P = .45). VO2max was similar between the incremental (57.29 ± 8.94 mL · kg–1 · min–1) and decremental (60.82 ± 8.49 mL · kg–1 · min–1) groups over time. Furthermore, Q and SV were similar between the incremental (Q 22.72 ± 5.85 L/min, SV 119.64 ± 33.02 mL/beat) and decremental groups (Q 20.36 ± 4.59 L/min, SV 109.03 ± 24.27 mL/beat) across all 3 trials.


The findings suggest that the decremental protocol does not elicit higher VO2max than an incremental protocol but may be used as an alternative protocol to measure VO2max in runners and triathletes.

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James May, Ryan Krzyzanowicz, Alan Nasypany, Russell Baker and Jeffrey Seegmiller


Although randomized controlled trials indicate that the Mulligan Concept (MC) of mobilization with movement can improve pain-free grip strength and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylalgia of the elbow, improve ankle dorsiflexion in patients with subacute ankle sprains, and decrease the signs and symptoms of patients with cervicogenic headache, little is known about the clinical application, use, and profile of certified Mulligan practitioners (CMPs) in America.


To better understand the use and value of applying the MC philosophy in clinical-care environments from the perspective of American CMPs while establishing a clinical profile of a CMP.


Quantitative descriptive design. Setting: Online survey instrument.


American CMPs.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Online survey instrument.


CMPs use the MC to treat a broad spectrum of spinal and peripheral clinical pathologies in primarily outpatient clinics with an active and athletic population. American CMPs also find value in the MC.


American CMPs continue to use and find value in the MC intervention strategy to treat a broad spectrum of spinal and peripheral conditions in their clinical practices.

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Lindsay Warren, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany and Jeffrey Seegmiller

The core is central to almost all extremity movements, especially in athletics. Running, jumping, kicking, and throwing are dependent on core function to create a stable base for movement. Poor core strength, endurance, stiffness, control, coordination, or a combination thereof can lead to decreased performance and increased risk of injury. Due to the core’s many complex elements, none of which are more or less important than the next, it is imperative that athletic trainers have a systematic and comprehensive plan for assessing and treating patients with stability or motor control dysfunctions of the entire spinal stabilizing system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to outline the structural (anatomical) components of the core and their functions, establish the elements of core stability (functional), review these elements’ importance in decreasing the risk of injury, and discuss the application of this information in athletic training.

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James M. May, Alan Nasypany, Julie Paolino, Russell Baker and Jeffrey Seegmiller


While the incidence and reinjury rates of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) continue to persist at high rates across many sporting activities, further exploration of assessment and treatment beyond the traditional ligamentous and strength/proprioceptive model is warranted. Further, assessing and treating both arthrokinematic and osteokinematic changes associated with LAS can provide insight into a more diverse approach to treating ankle pathology.


To examine the clinical use of the Mulligan Concept mobilization with movement (MWM) while treating patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS through authentic patient care.


An a priori case series.


Intercollegiate athletic training clinic.


Intercollegiate patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS.


The Mulligan Concept distal fibular anterior to posterior MWM.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pain-Intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) with Non-Weight Bearing (NRS-NWB) and Weight Bearing (NRS-WB), Disablement of the Physically Active Scale (DPAscale), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) with Activity of Daily living (FAMM-ADL) and Sport (FAAM-Sport), Client Specific Impairment Measure (CSIM), Y-Balance Composite (YBC), and Weight Bearing Measure for Dorsiflexion (WBDF).


Patients who are diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS and are treated with the Mulligan Concept report immediate and long-lasting minimal clinically important differences in patient outcome measures.


Clinicians who examine and use the Mulligan Concept MWM to treat acute LAS can expect immediate positive results that are progressively retained over time specific to patient-centered outcome measures as well as functional clinicianbased measures. Based on the immediate and positive results, clinicians should examine associated osteokinematic and arthrokinematic changes beyond that of the traditional ligamentous model.

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Marcie B. Fyock, Jeffrey G. Seegmiller, Alan M. Nasypany and Russell T. Baker