This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; M age = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12–24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors’ MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.
Jennifer Brunet and Catherine M. Sabiston
Jennifer Brunet, Eva Guérin, and Nicolas Speranzini
Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults’ participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults’ feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults’ exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.
Katie E. Gunnell, Jennifer Brunet, Catherine Sabiston, and Mathieu Bélanger
Despite research attention toward understanding relationships between psychological need satisfaction (PNS), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), methodological limitations make it difficult to establish reciprocal and mediating effects. Reciprocal relationships between PNS and MVPA were examined over 4 years, and their effects on adolescents’ change in dimensions of HRQoL were examined. Self-reported data were collected from 932 adolescents (Mage = 10.9 years) every 4 months beginning in Grades 5/6. At the between-persons and within-person level, earlier PNS predicted later MVPA whereas earlier MVPA did not predict later PNS. Increases in MVPA were associated with greater change in physical (βlinear = .61, βquadratic = .77, ps = .03) and school functioning (βlinear = .68, βquadratic = .84, ps = .03) but no other dimensions of HRQoL (p > .05). Decreases in PNS were not associated with any of the dimensions of HRQoL. Fostering adolescents’ PNS could be a starting point to increase MVPA, which, in turn, may enhance select dimensions of HRQoL.
Katie E. Gunnell, Jennifer Brunet, Erin K. Wing, and Mathieu Bélanger
Perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) may contribute to the low rates of moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous PA scale (PB-MVPA) by examining composite reliability and validity evidence based on the internal structure of the PB-MVPA and relations with other variables.
This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2013 from adolescents (N = 507; M age = 12.40, SD = .62) via self-report scales.
Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we found that perceived barriers were best represented as two factors representing internal (e.g., “I am not interested in physical activity”) and external (e.g., “I need equipment I don’t have”) dimensions. Composite reliability was over .80. Using multiple regression to examine the relationship between perceived barriers and moderate-to-vigorous PA, we found that perceived internal barriers were inversely related to moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = -.32, p < .05). Based on results of the analysis of variances, there were no known-group sex differences for perceived internal and external barriers (p < .26).
The PB-MVPA scale demonstrated evidence of score reliability and validity. To improve the understanding of the impact of perceived barriers on moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents, researchers should examine internal and external barriers separately.
Jennifer Brunet, Catherine Sabiston, Andree Castonguay, Leah Ferguson, and Natalia Bessette
The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M age = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R 2 = .24–.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.
Catherine M. Sabiston, Rachel Jewett, Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Mathieu Belanger, Jennifer Brunet, Erin O’Loughlin, and Jennifer O’Loughlin
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = −.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.
Jennifer Brunet, Katie E. Gunnell, Pedro Teixeira, Catherine M. Sabiston, and Mathieu Bélanger
The objectives of this study were to examine whether (a) measures designed to assess satisfaction of competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in physical activity contexts can represent both general and specific needs satisfaction and (b) the specific needs are associated with concurrent moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) participation (Time 1) and MVPA participation 4 months later (Time 2), beyond general psychological need satisfaction (PNS). Data from 544 adolescents (M age = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6) were analyzed. A bifactor model specifying four factors (i.e., one general PNS and three specific needs) provided a good fit to the data. Extending the model to predict Time 1 and Time 2 MVPA participation also provided a good fit to the data. General PNS and specific needs had unique and empirically distinguishable associations with MVPA participation. The bifactor operationalization of PNS provides a framework to delineate common and distinctive antecedents and outcomes of general PNS and specific needs.
Shaunna M. Burke, Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Christina Butler, and Andrea Utley
The benefits of informal physical activity during recovery from childhood cancer have rarely been investigated. This study adopted a multiple case study approach to explore the impact of recreational cycling on childhood cancer survivors’ experiences of well- and ill-being. Three semistructured interviews were conducted over a 3-month period with four survivors to explore their experiences of physical, psychological, and social well- and ill-being. Within-case analysis followed by cross-case analysis identified three themes that captured their well- and ill-being experiences with recreational cycling and cancer: (a) cultivating feelings and emotions, (b) experiencing physical changes, and (c) encountering positive and negative social interactions. The results from this study show that recreational cycling may be a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for the self-management of multiple domains of well- and ill-being during recovery from childhood cancer.
Shauna Solomon-Krakus, Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Andree L. Castonguay, and Mélanie Henderson
Purpose: This study examined the association between self-perceived actual and ideal body sizes and objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents, controlling for puberty, fat mass index, and sex. A secondary objective was to explore the association between objectively assessed fat mass index and MVPA. Methods: Participants were 438 early adolescents (M age = 11.61, SD = 0.92). Participants selected body sizes that represented their self-perceived actual and ideal bodies. Participants then wore an accelerometer for 1 week to assess MVPA. Polynomial regression analysis with response surface methods was used to explore MVPA in relation to the discrepancy and agreement (ie, no discrepancy) between self-perceived actual and ideal body sizes. Results: When self-perceived actual and ideal body sizes were in agreement and represented smaller and larger bodies, MVPA was low. Participants with similar self-perceived actual and ideal bodies in the middle of the body-size spectrum demonstrated the highest levels of MVPA. The direction and degree of the discrepancy between self-perceived actual and ideal bodies were not significantly associated with MVPA. Fat mass index was significantly and negatively associated with MVPA. Conclusions: These findings may inform physical activity promotion programs and provide methodological contributions to the study of how body image and MVPA are related.
Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack, and Peter R. E. Crocker
The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R 2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.